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Fuel Cell Inverter: Circuit Design and Control. M. J. Khan, M. Ordonez, M. T. Iqbal, and J. E. Quaicoe Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X5. First AIF Research Forum

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slide1

Fuel Cell Inverter: Circuit Design and Control

M. J. Khan, M. Ordonez, M. T. Iqbal, and J. E. Quaicoe

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X5

First AIF Research Forum

"Beyond Kyoto – Atlantic Sustainable Power R & D Initiatives"

May 19, 2006

University of New Brunswick, NB

slide2

Outline

  • Fuel Cell Systems
  • Power Converters
  • Design & Control Challenges
  • State of the Technology
  • MUN-FC Inverter Project
  • Design & Development
  • Summary
slide3

Fuel Cell Systems

  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are mostly considered
  • Electricity produced directly from electrochemical reaction
  • Stationary applications (residential/DG) are being widely studied
  • Performance is of non-linear nature

Ballard NexaTM Characteristics

slide4

Fuel Cell Power Converter

  • Variable DC output needs to be adjusted for grid/load conditions
  • Suitable power converter is required for effective interfacing
slide5

Design & Control Challenges

  • Fuel Cell - Power Stage Interface
    • Low frequency ripple and backward current injection
  • Storage - Power Stage Interface
    • Auxiliary energy storage device (Battery, Ultracapacitor)
  • The Power Stage
    • Robustness, efficiency, cost, size and weight
  • Power Stage-Grid/Load Interface
    • Performance, safety and power quality issues
slide6

State of the Technology

  • Commercial Systems
    • DRS Pivotal Power (www.pivotalpower.com)
    • Sustainable Energy Technologies Ltd. (www.sustainableenergy.com/)
    • Magnetek Power Electronics Group (www.magnetekpower.com/)
    • TDI Power System Solutions (www.tdipower.com/)
    • Ballard Power Systems Inc. (www.ballard.com)
  • Exploratory Systems
    • Texas A&M University, College Station,(http://enjeti.tamu.edu)
    • Colorado School of Mines, (http://egweb.mines.edu/faculty/msimoes/)
    • University of Central Florida, (http://floridapec.engr.ucf.edu/index.asp)
    • Michigan State University (http://www.egr.msu.edu/pelab/)
slide7

MUN-FC Inverter Project

  • Targets
  • Approach
    • Capacity building
    • Initial prototype
    • Intermediate prototype
    • Final prototype
  • Timing
    • 2004-2006
    • 2006-2007
    • 2007-2008
slide8

MUN-FC Inverter Project

  • Brief topology review

DC-DC boost + Inverter + LF-Transformer

DC-AC inverter + LF Transformer

High Frequency Resonant Converter-PWM Inverter

slide9

Design & Development

  • Selected topology
slide10

Design & Development (Cont’d)

  • Challenges

Prototype # 1:

ZVS Phase-Shifted DC/DC converter ( ~200 kHz, Off-the-shelf magnetics)

Hard-switched DC/AC inverter (Isolated load)

……………………….. Work temporarily withheld

Prototype # 2:

Hard switched DC/DC converter ( ~25 kHz, Custom magnetics)

Hard-switched DC/AC inverter (Isolated/Grid-connected load)

.. ……………………….. Work in-progress

slide11

Design & Development (Cont’d)

  • Power stages

Prototype # 2

  • Optimal spacing & comp. sizing
  • Expected quality performance

Prototype # 1

  • Rudimentary design
  • Limited performance
slide12

Design & Development (Cont’d)

  • Driver Circuits

HCPL 3120 based driver

(IGBT-Opto-isolation)

Phase Shift driver

(Galvanic Isolation)

HCPL 316J based driver

(Opto-isolation)

HCPL 3120 based driver

(MOSFET-Opto-isolation)

HCPL 3120 based driver

(with current buffer)

HCPL 3120 based driver

(compact design)

slide13

Design & Development (Cont’d)

  • Auxiliary power

Miniature DC-DC converter based

Miniature DC-DC converter (expaned)

Switching power supply with TI’s DC-DC on-board converter

slide14

Design & Development (Cont’d)

  • Other peripherals

TI’s DSP controller

Payton’s magnetics

Custom magnetics

Thermal management

Voltage sensor

Current sensor

slide15

Summary

General

  • Commercial inverters: Performance vs. Cost issue
  • Research oriented designs: Minute improvement vs. Overall goal
  • Blend of two domains need to be achieved

MUN FC-Inverter project

  • Significant achievement in capacity building
  • Valuable lessons learned
  • Development in full-swing

ASPRI involvement

  • Clearer goals need to be outlined
  • Greater collaboration needed
  • Technical know-how need to be exchanged
slide16

Further information

  • M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, J. E. Quaicoe, ‘Design and Development of a MOSFET Driver Circuit for Phase-Shifted Zero-Voltage-Switching Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter’, NECEC 05, November 2005, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
  • M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, J. E. Quaicoe, ‘Utility interactive fuel cell inverter for distributed generation: design consideration and experimental results’, CCECE05, May 1-4, 2005, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, ‘Design Considerations of a Utility Interactive Fuel Cell Inverter’ presented at IEEE 13th, NECEC conference, St. John’s NL, 2004
slide17

Acknowledgement

  • Faculty of Engineering & Applied Science, MUN, NL
  • AIF/ACOA
  • Blue Line Innovations Inc.