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Applied Pervasive Computing. Presentation 2: Pervasive Computing Introduced. Agenda. Mission: Establish basic terminology / background knowledge Historical Background / UbiComp Mark Weiser / Ubiquitous Computing Pervaisve Computing Today Main areas Related terms Mobile Computing

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applied pervasive computing

Applied Pervasive Computing

Presentation 2:

Pervasive Computing Introduced

  • Mission:
    • Establish basic terminology / background knowledge
  • Historical Background / UbiComp
    • Mark Weiser / Ubiquitous Computing
  • Pervaisve Computing Today
    • Main areas
    • Related terms
    • Mobile Computing
      • Devices and infrastructure
    • Sentient Computing
      • RFID, Bluetooth, Barcodes
    • HCI / AI
    • Developing
  • Where to get more info
historical background
Historical Background
  • 70’s and 80’s:
    • focus on PC and GUI development
  • Xerox PARC research into alternatives
    • (Xerox PARC invented the PC and GUI/Windows)
  • 80’s Mark Weiser introduces new paradigm
    • Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser)
    • The Invisible Computer (Norman)
    • Next Generation replaces ”Office Metaphor” / PC
    • Implosion: computers getting smaller
    • Explosion: interactive rooms, augmented reality
  • “computere i alting” or ”ting der tænker”
  • Today: also known as pervasive computing

Mark Weiser (1952-1999)

The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s

mark weiser definition
Mark Weiser Definition
  • Mark Weiser envisioned:

Ubiquitous computing is just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives.

Mark Weiser is the father of ubiquitous computing (1991).

[Mark Weiser, "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century”, Scientific American, pp. 94-10, Sept. 1991]

What Ubiquitous Computing Isn't

Ubiquitous computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people. Virtual reality is primarily a horse power problem; ubiquitous computing is a very difficult integration of human factors, computer science, engineering, and social sciences.


Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time; omnipresent (DK: allestedsnærværende)

ubicomp at xerox parc
UbiComp at Xerox PARC
  • At Xerox PARC – UbiComp was Implemented


Infra Red




ubicomp at xerox parc1
UbiComp at Xerox PARC
  • Tabs, Pads and Boards for interaction
    • More natural interaction within context of work, rather than PC
  • Wireless infrastructure, PAN / LAN / WAN
    • Enabled data access “anywhere, anytime”
  • Context awareness (Olivetti Research: Active Badge)
    • Auto redirect phone calls and find people,
    • Auto “push” relevant data and application within new context
  • Interaction Substrates (alternative interaction devices)
    • Alternatives to mouse and keyboard: speech, hand typewriting
many others
Many Others
  • Proces Data (Denmark) 1990’s
    • The Intelligent Building
    • All connected by a network (fieldbus)
    • Central control program
    • Access from all PC’s, and small touch-screens
    • Windows, Radiator Heater, Curtains, Lights
    • When too hot – all Windows opens, and the thermostats turn down the Radiators, when too much light, dim the lights – and use curtains (Calm technology), when no people in building – turn off the lights
  • Pig-Feeder 1990’s
    • Using RFID tags in pigs ears, the feeding station will recognize the pig, and calculate whether it has already received its ration
    • Data is collected and used for optimization calculations
    • Also: if pig is selected for separation – it is automatically separated
    • Later: weighing (mechanical or using imaging)
pervasive computing
Pervasive Computing
  • Term more frequently used today than Ubiquitous
  • IBM - Pervasive computing defined :
    • “Pervasive computing describes access to information using new communications or networking technology. The technology implies computing power, freed from the desktop, extended to wireless handheld devices, automobile telematics systems, home appliances, and commercial tools-of-the-trade.”
  • Important aspects:
    • Mobile Computing / Distributed Computing
    • Sentient Computing / Sensor Networks / Context Awareness
    • Implicit HCI / AI / Agent Technologies / Usability

What Pervasive Technologies do you know?

Have you worked with these technolgoies?

Are you involved in any Pervasive Projects?


pervasive (spreading or spread throughout), pervade (spread or diffuse through ), DK: gennemsyrende

related terms
Related Terms
  • Tangible Computing
    • Interacting with the digital world through real world physical objects – e.g. paper, moving objects and more
  • Embodied Virtuality
    • Same as Ubiquitous / Pervasive computing
    • Opposed to Virtual Reality
  • Augmented Reality
    • Enhancing the ”real world”
    • See-through displays with overlay graphics
    • Projecting digital images on surfaces
    • Digital Pen / Digital Paper
mobile computing
Mobile Computing
  • Key element of Pervasive Computing
  • Using Tablet PC’s, PDA’s, Cell phones or Information Appliances (Norman) to access “Overall Information Space” anytime / anywhere
  • Relies on Distributed Computing for infrastructure
    • PAN / LAN / WAN technologies
    • IrDa, ZigBee, WiBree, Bluetooth, WiFi, GSM/GPRS/UMTS/Tetra
    • Middleware: CORBA, Web services, Java RMI, .NET Remoting
  • Problems to consider:
    • Range, Battery life, Bandwidth, Security,
    • Processing power, COTS availability, Cost
  • Symbiotic Web-of-Technologies
  • HealthCare@Mobile
  • Taxmaster4: PDA or Cell Phone
sentient computing
Sentient Computing
  • Related concepts:
    • Sensor Networks & Context/Location Awareness
  • Using sensors to make devices aware of the current context
    • Hospital bed “senses” which patient is in the bed
    • And informs the central computer
    • Mobile device can “sense” a patient
  • Enabling Technologies
    • Sensors collecting data, temperature, blood pressure, TM4: CAN/Pulse, accelerometers,
    • RFID / NFC / SemaCodes / Barcodes for identification,
    • Bluetooth, WiFi, (UWB) for local positioning,
    • GPS, GSM triangulation, for global positioning
    • JCAF: Java Context Awareness Framework
implicit hci ai
Implicit HCI / AI

Equipping the embedded devices with intelligence

Devices understand what is expected of them and reacts

Context Awareness (other half from Sentient)

When starting car – TM4 mobile program starts (active context awareness)

When driving: TM4 embedded device records driving (passive context awareness – recorded for later use)

When nurse arrives at patients home – SIH mobile application is automatically started, and the right information is sent to mobile device

Norman: devices too complex – use information appliances

mobile device development
Mobile Device Development
    • Most cell phones support WML today (many XHTML)
    • Problem: no port access (no BT interface)
  • Java: J2ME MIDP CLDC (v. 1.0 & 2.0)
    • Most cell phones support v. 1.0, many 2.0 and Bluetooth/WS
  • Symbian C++
    • Many based on Symbian, only fraction of J2ME supported
    • Differences in C++ API
  • Windows Mobile (Windows CE) / PDA’s / MDA’s
    • .NET Framework, (C#, CLS), eMbedded C++ / VB
developing pervasive applications
Developing Pervasive Applications
  • Communication infrastructure
    • E.g. Bluetooth for PAN, WiFi for LAN, GPRS for WAN
    • Web services / CORBA
  • Mobile Device
    • Mobile phone / Smartphone / PDA / Dedicated
    • J2ME MIDP, JSR 82 (Bluetooth), JSR 175 (Web services), Netbeans with Mobile Extension
    • .NET CF C#, VB, C++
  • Local Server
    • WiFi / Bluetooth based / ZigBee
  • Sensors
    • Bluetooth equipped sensors, NFC, RFID
  • Central Server
    • Using a Web Server: Apache, Apache Tomcat, IIS, with database
more info
More Info
  • Conferences:
    • International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp)
    • International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive)
    • International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive)
    • Pervasive Healthcare
  • Magazines:
    • Pervasive Computing (IEEE)
    • Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (Springer)
continua alliance video
Continua Alliance Video
iha pervasive computing projects
IHA Pervasive Computing Projects
  • Pervasive Healthcare
    • OpenCare Project / SIH
    • Firefighter (with Systematic)
  • Pervasive Home
    • Minimum Configuration Home Automation (MC HA)
  • Pervasive Agriculture
    • IIOSS (Intelligent Identification and Observation of Sows and Slaughter pigs)
  • Pervasive Automation
    • The Taxmaster 4 project series
sih opencare project
SIH / OpenCare Project
  • Started September 2007.
  • Last semster: more than 20 students involved
  • 10 IHA Professors
  • More than 20 projects already completed
pervasive healthcare
Pervasive Healthcare
  • Emerging Discipline
  • Elements from
    • Bio Medical Engineering
    • Medical Informatics
    • Tele Medicine
    • Pervasive Computing
  • iHospital
  • ElderCare
  • Assisted Living
  • Acute Medicine
assistive living home care
Assistive Living & Home Care
  • Focus area at IHA
  • Keep Elderly at home longer
  • Avoid Transport to Hospital / GP
  • Early Warning:
    • Blood Pressure
    • ECG / HRV
    • Fall Detection
    • Fluid Balance
    • Others
current research projects
Current Research Projects
  • Infrastructure & Zero-Configuration Framework
  • Automatic Medicine Dispenser
  • Heart Rate Variability & ECG
  • Fluid Balance
  • Personal Communication Device and Fall Detection

Efficient and Open Infrastructure

what is infrastructure
What is Infrastructure?
  • Getting sensor data to the right recipients
  • Secure and reliable communications,
  • Resource redundancy
  • Providing UI and persistence features
  • Hiding away the complexities of a distributed system
  • Fast development and deployment of 3rd party sensors
why is it important
Why is it Important?
  • If infrastructure is not designed carefully you will get problems with:
    • Security
    • Distribution of data
    • Bandwidth (both PAN, LAN, WAN)
    • Operating time of Power Cells (Batteries)
    • Extendibility of your software
    • Openness and Flexibility
the need for an open and easily extendible infrastructure
The Need for an Open and Easily Extendible Infrastructure
  • If each sensor vendor provided his own infrastructure, then each vendor would have to integrate with hundreds of Hospital EPR and GP systems – Extremely costly and inefficient
  • Healthcare professional will not be able to combine equipment from different vendors, as the economic overhead of the infrastructure equipment would be too great
  • Most existing vendors protect their gateway and infrastructure, instead of opening up (vendor lock-in)
  • Our idea: open standards, open source code, component oriented, and multiple middleware platform support
technologies used
Technologies Used
  • We have chosen the .NET platform
    • Very efficient and easy
    • Deployment on Mono/LINUX and Windows platforms
    • Effective for pervasive platforms
    • Multiple programming languages
    • Excellent integration with legacy C and C++
    • Excellent wireless capabilities
    • Excellent GUI capabilities / high usability
technologies used1
Technologies Used
  • Supports Bluetooth
  • Planning on several others
  • Open platform: write your own
  • Supports ADSL, UMTS, GPRS
  • Combine for redundancy
  • Will support Web services (WCF), CORBA/IIOP
  • Component based - low coupling – replace components
  • Supports plug-in of GUI / SUI elements and more
  • Change the whole GUI, integrate into own system
technologies used2
Technologies Used
  • Windows Touch screen based PC chosen
  • Considered using a mobile platform but:
    • Mobile platforms have huge battery issues
    • Limited wireless capabilities
    • Very limited GUI/SUI capabilities
    • Limited usability
    • Low processing power
  • Windows PC platform does not have these problems:
    • Touch-screen UI is extremely user friendly interface for healthcare professionals and relatives
    • Only problem: it is not mobile, what happens when the user gets mobile?
technologies used3
Technologies Used
  • A Symbiotic Web-of-Technologies
  • Personal Communication Device supports mobile users
  • Periodically activates the BT stack to check
  • Synchronizes drivers with stationary PC
  • Performs wireless sensor handoff when out of range
  • Security is still a challenge
  • Will other research teams join in on our open source idea and participate in developing it further?
  • Will commercial vendors join and open up their systems- or integrate with this?
  • Is this too complex to unify?
iioss project
IIOSS Project
  • Started September 2008.
  • Ends October 2010.
  • Currently 7 students working on projects
  • 3 student programmers
  • 6 IHA professors
  • 6 students worked last semester with top grades
  • 2013 EU Requirement
  • Help needed:
    • Identification
    • Pin-pointing
  • Additional:
    • Behavioral tracking
    • Weight measurement
    • Disease and wound identification
technologies being tested
  • RFID (active and passive)
  • Camera / Signal processing
  • Laser / projector
  • PDA, cell phone,
  • Speech, Gesture, Laser
  • Infrastructure: LAN, WiFi, Bluetooth, GPRS
what do you think
What do you THINK?
  • What is the potential here?
  • What are the challenges?
  • Are you up for it?
tour of the labs
Tour of the Labs
  • Lets do a Tour of the Labs …
  • 614 and 615