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# Matter & Particle Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Matter & Particle Theory. Grade 9 Science– Notre Dame College School.  John Dalton – the guy who came up with particle theory. Agenda. What is matter The Particle Theory Mixtures vs. Pure Substances Mixtures Hetrogeneous Mixtures Solution Homogeneous Mixtures Mechanical Mixture

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### Matter & Particle Theory

Grade 9 Science– Notre Dame College School

 John Dalton – the guy who came up with particle theory

• What is matter

• The Particle Theory

• Mixtures vs. Pure Substances

• Mixtures

• Hetrogeneous Mixtures

• Solution

• Homogeneous Mixtures

• Mechanical Mixture

• Suspension

• Solution

• PureSubstances

• Elements

• Compounds

• Matter is anything that contains mass & volume (takes up space)

• Energy, such as light, heat, and sound, is NOT matter

• IT’S ALL MATTER!

• This describes the way to describe the structure and behaviour of matter.

• There are 4 principals of the particle theory written by a chemist named John Dalton.

• Look at a piece of chalk  If you broke a piece of chalk in half, would it still look like and behave like chalk?

• How small of pieces would you have to break a piece of chalk so that it isn’t chalk anymore – is that even possible?

• The answer is YES, because the smallest pieces of chalk are made up of particles and the particle theory explains how this works!

1. All Matter is made up of very tiny objects called particles.

• These particles are VERY tiny – too small to be seen with any regular light microscope

2. All Particles have spaces between them.

• These size of these spaces determine the state of the matter

3. Particles present in matter are always in motion.

• In a solid, they vibrate together

• In a liquid, they stay close together but slide along each other

• In a gas, they bounce and move in all directions!

4.The particles in a substance attract each other.

• The degree that particles are attracted to each other is different in difference substances,

Take a guess!

• Which substance do you think has the strongest attractions? Which has the weakest?

• Iron

• Water

• Oxygen

• Recap: Here they are all again

• All Matter is made up of very tiny objects called particles.

• All Particles have spaces between them.

• Particles present in matter are always in motion.

• The particles in a substance attract each other.

• All matter can be divided into two big categories: PURE SUBSTANCES and MIXTURES.

• Pure substances are made up of one type of element or compound

• Mixtures are a combination of pure substances (2 or more types of particles)

• Versus

• Pure substances are made up of only ONE type of particle

• Pure substances are in the form of either elements or compounds.

• Elements are the smallest and “Purest” forms of particles

• They cannot be broken down further by ordinary means (such as simple reactions, heat, or electricity)

• They are only made up of one type of atom (one type of particle

• Examples are Oxygen, Calcium, Iron, Carbon and Helium

• A compound is made up of only one type of particle, Called a molecule

• Compounds are made up of many molecules that are held together by chemical bonds!

 Water is a molecule because it is made out of two types of atoms (oxygen and hydrogen)

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Water is a compound because it has many molecules of one type (H2O = Water)

Hydrogen

• A mixture is a combination of two or more different substances (different types of particles).

• Mixtures can be divided into 2 big categories:

• Heterogeneous Mixtures

• Homogeneous Mixtures

• Made up of two or more particles where the different particles are easy to see and separate.

• Can be divided into two categories:

• Mechanical mixtures

• Suspensions

An Oreo cookie is a heterogeneous mixture

• Particles that are in the same container but can be easily separated.

• Made up of several distinct parts

A lasagne, parfait, and a cookie are both examples of mechanical mixtures

What are some of the parts of these mechanical mixtures?

• Small particles of one substance float in another substance

Salad Dressing, glittery nail polish, and yogurt are examples of suspensions

• A homogenous mixture occurs when 2 or more particles blend together and cannot be seen separately

• Solutions are homogeneous mixtures!

• A mixture of 2 or more things where one substance dissolves

• Kool-Aid and tea are solutions because you cannot see the flour crystals floating in the kool-aid, and you cannot see the tea floating in the tea when the bag is removed

Kool-Aid and tea are examples of solutions