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Kinetic Theory

Kinetic Theory

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Kinetic Theory

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  1. Kinetic Theory 16.1

  2. Warm up • Name the states of matter that you know. • Give an example from your daily life about the states of matter that you mentioned.

  3. Objectives • Explain the kinetic theory of matter. • Describe particle movement in the four states of matter. • Explain particle behavior at the melting and boiling points.

  4. Introduction • What happens to molecules of water as ice melts? • Why does snow melts when you hold it in your hand? • What happen when water boils?

  5. Kinetic Theory • Look at the following figure. Can you identify the states of water present? How are these states alike and different?

  6. Kinetic Theory • Kinetic theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave. • To explain the behavior of particles, it is necessary to make some basic assumptions.

  7. Movement of particles in matter

  8. Thermal energy • How can frozen solid ice cube have motion? Remember to focus on the particles. • Thermal energy is the total energy of material’s particles, including kinetic (movement) and potential (resulting from forces that act within or between particles)

  9. Average kinetic energy • What is your concept about temperature? • In science, temperature means the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance, or how fast the particles are moving. • Molecules have kinetic energy at all temperatures even at absolute zero or -273.15 oC. • How are kinetic energy and temperature related?

  10. Solid state • Describe the particles in a solid. • Most solid materials have specific type of geometric in which they form when cooled. • Chemical and physical properties of solids often can be attributed to the type of geometric arrangement that the solid forms.

  11. How can a solid changes into a liquid? • What is a melting point? • What is heat of fusion?

  12. Liquid state • Describe the particles in a liquid. • What is a melting point? • What is heat of fusion.

  13. Evaporation • What is evaporation?

  14. Boiling • What is boiling?

  15. Evaporation and boiling

  16. Boiling and heat of vaporization. How does external pressure affect the boiling point of a liquid?

  17. Gases • Describe the molecules of a gas. • What happens when you put 5 ml gas in a 20 ml container? How? • What is diffusion?

  18. Heating curve of a liquid

  19. But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels…between 1000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ? Will everything just be a gas?

  20. Plasma • A plasma is an ionized gas. • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. • Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. • Plasma is the • common state • of matter

  21. States of matter

  22. Some places where plasmas are found… 1.Flames

  23. 2. Lightning

  24. 3. Aurora (Northern Lights)

  25. The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma state

  26. Amorphous solids • Ice melts at:0oC • Gold melts at 1064 oC • Lead melts at 327 oC • Some solids have no specific melting point, they soften and directly become liquid. Those solids are called amorphous solids. • Amorphous solids don’t have ordered arrangement of particles. • Examples of amorphous solids are glass and plastic rocks obsidian (volcanic glass)

  27. Liquid crystals • Are another group of materials that do not change state in the usual manner. • Have geometric order in the solid state • liquid crystals are highly responsive to temperature and electric fields. • Example are the displays of watches , clocks, calculators, some notebook computers…

  28. Wrap up • Explain the kinetic theory of matter • Define thermal energy • How are kinetic energy and temperature related? • Describe the particle movement, shape, and volume in the four states of matter • Compare between melting and boiling points • Distinguish between heat of fusion and heat of vaporization • Compare between evaporation and boiling • Compare between state changes of water using the temperature Vs. heat graph • Explain why diffusion in gases is faster than in liquids/ solids • Explain why amorphous solids melts over a temperature range • List examples of amorphous solids.

  29. Assessment • H.W page: 483 # 1 till 7 • SWQ 1: 1- 15.1: Composition of Matter 2- 15.2: Properties of Matter 3- 16.1: Kinetic Theory