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Chapter 13 Section 1

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  1. Chapter 13 Section 1 The Rise of Dictators

  2. What peace treaty ended WWI?

  3. Europe after WWI Treaty of Versailles • France believed peace treaty was not harsh enough on Germany • Italy did not feel they gained their share for participating in the war

  4. Europe after WWI Treaty of Versailles • After the war Germany established a democratic government, known as the Weimar Republic • Size and scope of military limited • Germany was forced to pay reparations, or damages for the war • Led to severe inflation -prices for goods increased at a remarkable rate

  5. The Weimar Republic • 1914: 4 marks to $1 • 1919: 9 marks to $1 • 1922: 500 marks to $1 • Jan. 1923: 15,000 marks to $1 • July 1923: 350,000 marks to $1 • August 1923: 5,000,000 marks to $1 Highest Rate of Exchange: 11 trillion marks to $1

  6. Hyperinflation • Inflation wiped out the savings of the middle class

  7. The Weimar Republic Political opposition from: • Far left - communist • Far right - anti-democratic • Germany military - Unhappy with limitations from Treaty of Versailles

  8. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders • Totalitarian regime- government has control over the daily life of its citizens

  9. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders Italy • Benito Mussolini • Fascism- a system of government that stressed the glory of the state • “Nationalism on steroids” • Established a dictatorship- government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power and authority • Il Duce – the leader

  10. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders Germany • Adolf Hitler • Nationalist Socialist (Nazi) • Attempted coup in 1923 failed • Thrown in jail • Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) outlining extremist political beliefs

  11. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders Germany • After released from prison, tried to gain power through peaceful means • By 1933, the Nazis were the most powerful party in Germany • Hitler became Chancellor

  12. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders Germany • Established himself as a totalitarian dictator • Eliminated political opponents “Cult of Personality” • Idea that Hitler would lead the Germany people to greatness • Began to rebuild German military • Wanted “living space” for German people to grow and prosper

  13. Read: Program of the National Socialist German Workers Party

  14. Rise of Totalitarian Leaders Japan • Military leaders used violence to control the government • Led by Hideki Tojo • Inspired by nationalist dreams of Japanese greatness • Felt that Japan was limited by size of territory, sought to expand

  15. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force Japan • Japanese military invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931 - Without approval of civilian government • Wanted land and natural resources • Showed weakness of the civilian government • Japanese public supported increasingly powerful military • League of Nations unwilling and unable to stop Japan

  16. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force Italy • Italy invaded African nation of Ethiopia in 1935 • Ethiopian leader, Haile Selassie, asked League of Nations for help • International community unwilling to stand against aggression

  17. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force Spanish Civil War • Conflict between Communist and supporters of the Republic and Nationalists (Fascists) • Fascist Italy and Germany sent forces and equipment to the Nationalist, led by Francisco Franco • The USSR sent support to Communists • Volunteers from the U.S. joined the republicans • Bloody and brutal fighting • Franco, with aid of Germany and Italy, was victorious • Spain became a fascist dictatorship

  18. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force Violations of the Treaty of Versailles • Hitler rearmed German military • Sent German troops to the Rhineland • In 1938, forces union, or Anschluss, with Austria

  19. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force • Germany wanted control of the Sudetenland - German speaking portion of Czechoslovakia, 1938

  20. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force • British and French wanted to avoid conflict • Gave into Hitler’s request, appeasement • “Peace in our Time” • Hitler occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia in 1939

  21. Chapter 13 Section 2

  22. Beginning of WWII • Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union 1939 • Agreed to invade and divide Poland

  23. Beginning of WWII • Germany invaded Poland in 1939 Blitzkrieg • Lightning War • Overwhelming combination of air attack, and fast moving armored strikes • Poland conquered within a month

  24. Beginning of WWII • As a result of invasion of Poland, France and England declared war on Germany - The Allies • Allies decided not to attack Germany • Felt secure behind a defensive barrier on border with Germany, MaginotLine • “Sitzkrieg”, phony War

  25. Maginot Line

  26. Beginning of WWII • Germany attacked Denmark and Norway in 1940, fell with little resistance • Invaded Belgium and the Netherlands on their way to France - avoiding the Maginot Line • German forces overwhelmed the French • France captured within a month • Germans set up a loyal government in Southern France - Vichy France

  27. Vichy France

  28. Beginning of WWII • Germans turned attention to Britain • German air force, Luftwaffe, began a bombing campaign to prepare for invasion • “The Blitz” • Thousands of civilians died in the raids • British air force (RAF) aided by radar - Able to inflict heavy losses on Luftwaffe • By late 1940, bombing stopped and invasion was called off

  29. The Blitz

  30. Beginning of WWII • Hitler violated nonaggression pact, June 1941 • Germany invaded the Soviet Union

  31. Beginning of WWII • Japanese invaded China in 1937 - Brutal fighting - 200,000-300,000 Chinese massacred in capitol Nanjing (Beijing) • Japanese invaded French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) 1941 • Tojo forced government to resign, took control of the country

  32. Alliance • Germany and Italy agree to alliance in 1936 • Japan joined the alliance in 1940 - Axis Powers

  33. Complete Map Label “Europe 1940”