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Genetic Technology. Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348. Genetic Engineering.

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Section 13 2 summary pages 341 348
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348

Genetic Engineering

  • 1. Genetic engineering is a faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population by cutting fragments of DNA from one organismand inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or a different species.



Section 13 2 summary pa341 348
Section 13.2 Summary – pa341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Genetic Engineering

  • 2. You also may hear genetic engineering referred to as recombinantDNA technology.

  • 3. Recombinant DNA is made by connecting or recombining, fragments of DNA from different sources.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3481
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA

  • 4. Plants and animals that contain functional recombinant DNA from an organism of a different type are known as transgenic organisms because they contain foreign DNA.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3482
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

5. Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA

  • The first step of the process is to isolate the foreign DNA fragment that will be inserted.

  • The second step is to attach the DNA fragment to a carrier.

  • The third step is the transfer into the host organism.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3483
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Restriction enzymes cleave (cut) DNA

  • To isolate a DNA fragment, small pieces of DNA must be cut from a chromosome.

  • 6. Restriction enzymes are bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3484
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Cut

Cleavage

Restriction enzymes cleave (cut) DNA

Insertion


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3485
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Vectors transfer DNA

  • 7. A vector is the means by which DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell.

  • Vectors may be biological or mechanical.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3486
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Vectors transfer DNA

  • 8. Biological vectors include viruses and bacterial plasmids.

  • 9. A plasmid, is a small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell.


Vectors transfer dna
Vectors transfer DNA by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

  • 10. Two types of mechanical vectors carry foreign DNA into a cell’s nucleus


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3487
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Vectors transfer DNA

  • One, a micropipette, is inserted into a cell;.

the other is a microscopic metal bullet coated with DNA that is shot into the cell from a gene gun


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3488
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Insertion into a vector

  • If a plasmid and foreign DNA have been cleaved with the same restriction enzyme, the ends of each will match and they will join together, reconnecting the plasmid ring.

  • The foreign DNA is recombined into a plasmid or viral DNA with the help of a second enzyme.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 3489
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Gene cloning

  • After the foreign DNA has been inserted into the plasmid, the recombined DNA is transferred into a bacterial cell.

  • 11. An advantage to using bacterial cells to clone DNA is that they reproduce quickly; therefore, millions of bacteria are produced and each bacterium contains hundreds of recombinant DNA molecules.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34810
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Gene cloning

  • 12. Clones are genetically identical copies.

  • Plasmids also can be used to deliver genes to animal or plant cells, which incorporate the recombinant DNA.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34811
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Gene cloning

  • 13. Each time the host cell divides it copies the recombinant DNA along with its own.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34812
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Gene cloning

Recombined DNA

Foreign DNA (gene for human growth hormone)

Cleavage sites

Recombined plasmid

Bacterial chromosome

E. coli

Plasmid

Human growth hormone


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34813
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

Cloning of animals

  • Although their techniques are inefficient, scientists are coming closer to perfecting the process of cloning animals.


What animals have been cloned
What animals have been cloned? by putting pieces of DNA from one organism into another

  • Scientists have been cloning animals for many years.

  • In 1952, the first animal, a tadpole, was cloned.

  • www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml#animalsQ


  • Before the creation of Dolly, the first mammal cloned from the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

  • Since Dolly, researchers have cloned a number of large and small animals including sheep, goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, and rabbits. All these clones were created using nuclear transfer technology.

  • Hundreds of cloned animals exist today, but the number of different species is limited. Attempts at cloning certain species have been unsuccessful.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34814
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Polymerase chain reaction

  • 14. A method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed in order to replicate DNA outside living organisms,

  • This method uses heat to separate DNA strands from each other.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34815
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Polymerase chain reaction

  • The machine repeatedly replicates the DNA, making millions of copies in less than a day.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34816
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Sequencing DNA

  • In DNA sequencing, millions of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment are cloned using PCR. Then, the strands are separated from each other.

  • The single-stranded fragments are placed in four different test tubes, one for each DNA base.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34817
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Sequencing DNA

  • Each tube contains four normal nucleotides (A,C, G,T) and an enzyme that can catalyze the synthesis of a complementary strand.

  • One nucleotide in each tube is tagged with a different fluorescent color.

  • The reactions produce complementary strands of varying lengths.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34818
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Sequencing DNA

  • 15. These strands are separated according to size by 16. gelelectrophoresis producing a pattern of fluorescent bands in the gel.

  • The bands are visualized using a laser scanner or UV light.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34819
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Gel Electrophoresis

  • Restriction enzymes are the perfect tools for cutting DNA. However, once the DNA is cut, a scientist needs to determine exactly what fragments have been formed..


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34820
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Restriction enzymes

  • Either one or several restriction enzymes is added to a sample of DNA. The restriction enzymes cut the DNA into fragments.

DNA fragments


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34821
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

The gel

  • With a consistency that is firmer than dessert gelatin, the gel is molded so that small wells form at one end.

Gel

  • DNA fragments are placed into small wells at the end of a firm block of gel.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34822
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Power source

An electric field

  • The gel is placed in a solution and an electric field is applied. One end of the gel is positive and the other end is negative.

Negative end

Positive end


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34823
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

The fragments move

  • The negatively charged DNA fragments travel toward the positive end.

Completed gel

Shorter fragments

Longer fragments


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34824
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

The fragments move

  • 18.The smaller the fragment, the faster it moves through the gel.

  • The smallest fragments move the farthest from the well.


Making a gel summarized 17
Making a Gel (summarized)(#17) the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

  • 1. Restriction enzymes cut DNA into fragments

  • 2. DNA fragments are placed into small wells at the end of a firm block of gel which glows under UV light.

  • 3. One end of the gel is made + (pos.) and the other – (neg.)

  • 4. Neg. charged DNA fragments move toward the + end.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34825
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Applications of DNA Technology

  • The main areas proposed for recombinant bacteria are in industry, medicine, and agriculture.

Recombinant DNA in industry

  • Many species of bacteria have been engineered to produce chemical compounds used by humans.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34826
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

19.Recombinant DNA in industry

  • Scientists have modified the bacterium E. coli to produce the expensive indigo dye that is used to color denim blue jeans.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34827
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

19. Industrial Applications of DNA Technology

The production of

  • cheese

  • paper

  • laundry detergents

  • sewage treatment


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34828
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

20. Recombinant DNA in medicine

  • Pharmaceutical companies already are producing molecules made by recombinant DNA to treat human diseases.

  • Recombinant bacteria are used in the production of human growth hormone to treat pituitary dwarfism and insulin to treat diabetes.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34829
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

20. Recombinant DNA in medicine

  • Scientists can study diseases and the role specific genes play in an organism by using transgenic animals


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34830
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

21. Transgenic animals

  • . An animal that contains recombinant DNA from other organisms inserted into them is called a transgenic organism.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34831
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Transgenic animals

  • Mouse chromosomes also are similar to human chromosomes.

  • Scientists know the locations of many genes on mouse chromosomes.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34832
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Transgenic animals

  • On the same farm in Scotland that produced the cloned sheep Dolly, a transgenic sheep was produced that contained the corrected human gene for hemophilia A.

  • This human gene inserted into the sheep chromosomes allows the production of the clotting protein in the sheep’s milk.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34833
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

22. Recombinant DNA in agriculture

  • Recombinant DNA technology has been highly utilized in the agricultural and food industries.

  • Crops have been developed that are better tasting, stay fresh longer, and are protected from disease and insect infestations.


Section 13 2 summary pages 341 34834
Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Recombinant DNA in agriculture

The Most Common Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

150

140

Millions of hectares

7%

100

72

36%

50

34

25

16%

11%

0

Soybeans

Corn

Cotton

Canola


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 353
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

23. Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome

  • In 1990, scientists in the United States organized the Human Genome Project (HGP). It is an international effort to completely map and sequence the human genome, the approximately 35 000-40 000 genes on the 46 human chromosomes.

  • The human genome map shows the sequence of the genes on the 46 chromosomes.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3531
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome

  • In February of 2001, the HGP published its working draft of the 3 billion base pairs of DNA in most human cells.

  • The sequence of chromosomes 21 and 22 was finished by May 2000.

  • It was completed in 2003, but the data is still being analyzed.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3532
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

24. Applications of the Human Genome Project

  • Improved techniques for

  • prenatal diagnosis of human disorders,

  • use of gene therapy, and

  • development of new methods of crime detection


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3533
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Diagnosis of genetic disorders

  • One of the most important benefits of the HGP has been the diagnosis of genetic disorders.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3534
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Diagnosis of genetic disorders

  • The DNA of people with and without a genetic disorder is compared to find differences that are associated with the disorder. Once it is clearly understood where a gene is located and that a mutation in the gene causes the disorder, a diagnosis can be made for an individual, even before birth.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3535
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

Gene therapy

  • Individuals who inherit a serious genetic disorder may now have hope—gene therapy. 25. Gene therapy is the insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders. Much research is being done, but the FDA has not approved any therapy for sale.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3536
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.

DNA fingerprinting

  • DNA fingerprinting can be used to convict or acquit individuals of criminal offenses because every person is genetically unique.

  • 26. DNA fingerprinting works because no two individuals (except identical twins) have the same DNA sequences, and because all cells (except gametes) of an individual have the same DNA.


  • To identify individuals, forensic scientists scan 13 DNA regions, or loci, that vary from person to person and use the data to create a DNA profile of that individual (sometimes called a DNA fingerprint). There is an extremely small chance that another person has the same DNA profile for a particular set of 13 regions. (Human genome project info)


  • Human Genome Project--DNA fingerprinting regions, or loci, that vary from person to person and use the data to create a DNA profile of that individual (sometimes called a DNA fingerprint). There is an extremely small chance that another person has the same DNA profile for a particular set of 13 regions. (Human genome project info)


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3537
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 regions, or loci, that vary from person to person and use the data to create a DNA profile of that individual (sometimes called a DNA fingerprint). There is an extremely small chance that another person has the same DNA profile for a particular set of 13 regions. (Human genome project info)

DNA fingerprinting

  • In a forensic application of DNA fingerprinting, a small DNA sample is obtained from a suspect and from blood, hair, skin, or semen found at the crime scene.

  • The DNA, which includes the unique non-coding segments, is cut into fragments with restriction enzymes.


Section 13 3 summary pages 349 3538
Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353 regions, or loci, that vary from person to person and use the data to create a DNA profile of that individual (sometimes called a DNA fingerprint). There is an extremely small chance that another person has the same DNA profile for a particular set of 13 regions. (Human genome project info)

DNA fingerprinting

  • The fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis, then further analyzed. If the samples match, the suspect most likely is guilty.


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