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Distance Learning: The Application of Computers and Communication to Education. Bill D. Carroll, Ph.D., P.E. Professor and Chairperson Computer Science and Engineering Department The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX 76019-0015 email: carroll@cse.uta.edu. Abstract. Outline.

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distance learning the application of computers and communication to education

Distance Learning:The Application of Computers and Communication to Education

Bill D. Carroll, Ph.D., P.E.

Professor and Chairperson

Computer Science and Engineering Department

The University of Texas at Arlington

Arlington, TX 76019-0015

email: carroll@cse.uta.edu

outline
Outline
  • Need
  • Definitions
  • History
  • Delivery models
  • Opportunities
  • Barriers
  • Internet and the World-Wide-Web
  • Economic and social issues
  • Case Studies
the need
The need
  • Any time, any place
  • Convenience
  • Asynchronous access
  • Remote locations
definitions 1
Definitions -- 1
  • Distance learning -- student and teacher separated in place and/or time
  • Asynchronous learning -- educational material may be accessed at the student’s convenience
  • Distance education -- the delivery of a complete course or program at distance
  • Multimedia courseware -- course material containing a variety of media types, e.g., text, audio, graphics, video, animation
definitions 2
Definitions -- 2
  • Distance learner -- the student receiving educational material at distance
  • Distance teacher -- the person primarily responsible for developing and delivering the educational material
  • Mentor -- a person responsible for assisting the distance learner
  • Competency-based education -- assessment of knowledge learned versus the accumulation of credits
definitions 3
Definitions -- 3
  • Content provider -- the institution that “owns” the course
  • Course broker -- the institution that “offers” the course
  • Educational infrastructure provider -- the institution that provides the services to develop and/or delivery courses at distance
historical perspective
Historical perspective
  • Correspondence courses (1940’s to present)
  • Remote classroom facilities (1960’s to present)
  • Closed-circuit television networks (1960’s to present)
  • Video tape delivery (1980’s to present)
  • Satellite television (1980’s to present)
  • Video conferencing (1990’s)
  • Internet delivery (1990’s)
the providers
The providers
  • Traditional universities
  • Not for profit institutions, e.g.
    • National Technological University (NTU)
    • Western Governors’ University (WGU)
    • Open University
  • For profit institutions, e.g.
    • University of Phoenix
types of programs delivered
Types of programs delivered
  • Continuing education
  • Specialized training courses
  • Graduate courses and programs
  • Undergraduate courses
d elivery models
Delivery Models
  • Synchronous
  • Asynchronous
opportunities
Opportunities
  • Increase access to education around the world
  • Improve the quality of learning
  • Expand the educational marketplace
  • Partnerships
internet and the world wide web
Internet and the World-Wide-Web
  • One-third of all college courses make use of E-mail
  • One-quarter draw on resources of the internet
  • One-eighth make use of multimedia applications
barriers 1
Barriers -- 1
  • Costs
    • Development
    • Delivery
  • Higher education funding models
  • Faculty and staff training
  • Existing policies and regulations
  • Security
  • Intellectual property issues
  • Access to resources
    • Library
    • Computers
barriers 2
Barriers -- 2
  • Quality control
    • Market forces
    • Accreditation
  • Student assessment
    • Delivery of examinations
    • Assignments
    • Projects
  • Pedagogy
  • Need for open, non proprietary standards
social issues
Social Issues
  • Absence of peer groups
  • Student support services
  • Absence of campus life
engineering programs
Engineering programs
  • Laboratories
  • Projects
  • Homework
  • Mentoring
national technological university
National Technological University
  • Private, not for profit
  • Satellite and video tape delivery
  • Master’s degree programs in a variety of engineering disciplines
  • Non-credit short courses
  • Special programs
  • Faculty drawn from participating universities
western governors university
Western Governors’ University
  • Mission -- to promote competency-based degrees through high quality distance education
  • Eighteen states in the western US
  • Faculty
    • No teaching faculty
    • Mentor/advisor faculty
  • Private, not for profit
  • Degree granting
  • Program and course broker
  • Developing engineering offerings from Utah State University
  • Recently entered into an agreement with the Open University of the UK
open university
Open University
  • Britain’s largest teaching institution
  • Correspondence based
  • Extensive tutoring and support network
  • Courses in engineering and computing
    • Undergraduate
    • Graduate
university of phoenix
University of Phoenix
  • Private, for profit
  • Programs offered at campuses and learning centers in twelve states and Puerto Rico, online, and via the Center for Distance Education
  • Current degree programs offered at distance
    • BS in Business in several specialties
    • BS in Nursing
    • MA in Education
    • MA in Organizational Management
    • MBA
    • MS in Nursing
stanford online www stanford edu
Stanford Online (www.stanford.edu)
  • School of Engineering/Stanford Center for Professional Development
  • Online courses delivered using streaming video technology from Microsoft’s NetShow
  • Online courses may be viewed live or within 2 to 3 hours of delivery
  • Online MSEE with emphasis in telecommunications
  • Admission and completion requirements the same for on-campus and distance students
  • Now also delivers courses from the School of Earth Sciences and School of Medicine
the university of texas at arlington
The University of Texas at Arlington
  • Center for Distance Education
    • Delivering network-based classes in political science and geology
  • Engineering Center for Distance Learning
    • Closed-circuit television
    • Videotape
    • Internet streaming video
  • Nursing Television
    • Videotape to four outreach centers
    • Can earn a BS in Nursing degree (325 earned)
uta engineering center for distance learning
UTA Engineering Center for Distance Learning
  • Internet-based courses
    • Streaming video of lectures using Real NetWare technology
    • Supporting materials provided via instructor web pages
  • Fall 1998 course offerings
    • AE 5303 -- Aerodynamics of Wings and Bodies
    • CSE 5311 -- Design and Analysis of Algorithms
    • CSE 5324 -- Software Engineering I
    • EE 5366 -- Communication Satellite Systems
    • ME 5310 -- Finite Elements
    • ME 5331 -- Analytic Methods in Engineering
    • PHYS 1443 -- General Technical Physics
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Problems to overcome
    • Technical
    • Pedagogical
    • Administrative
    • Political
    • Social
  • Demand
  • Benefits