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C H A P T E R . Facing Today’s Communication Challenges. 1. Learning Objectives. Examine the process of communication. Understand the powerful effect culture has on communication.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Examine the process of communication.
  • Understand the powerful effect culture has on communication.
  • Compare key North American cultural values with those of other cultures.
  • Describe methods for improving cross-cultural communication.
  • Discuss the effects of changing markets, work practices, and workforce diversity.
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Identify specific techniques that develop effective communication among diverse workplace audiences.
  • Explain how computer technologies help business communicators collect information and process words.
  • Explain how electronic mail and presentation software enhance communication for businesspeople.
the communication process
The Communication Process
  • Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another.
the communication model6
The Communication Model

Sender Encodes Message

SenderHas Idea

the communication model7
The Communication Model

Sender Encodes Message

SenderHas Idea

Channel Carries Message

the communication model8
The Communication Model

Sender Encodes Message

Receiver Decodes Message

SenderHas Idea

Channel Carries Message

the communication model9
The Communication Model

Receiver Understands Message

Sender Encodes Message

Receiver Decodes Message

SenderHas Idea

Channel Carries Message

the communication model10
The Communication Model

Receiver Understands Message

Sender Encodes Message

Receiver Decodes Message

SenderHas Idea

Channel Carries Message

Feedback

communication model expanded
Communication Model Expanded

Sending Channel

Stimulus

Decoding

Understanding

Encoding

BARRIERS

Encoding

Understanding

Decoding

Feedback Channel

Person A

Person B

factors affecting receiver understanding
Factors Affecting Receiver Understanding
  • Form and appearance of message
  • Subject of the message
  • Attitude toward the message
  • Communication skills
  • Physical conditions
barriers to communication
Barriers to Communication
  • Physical distractions
  • Long communication chains
  • Lack of interest in the message
  • Emotional interference
overcoming barriers to communication
Overcoming Barriers to Communication
  • Realize that communication is imperfect.
  • Adapt the message to the receiver.
  • Improve your language and listening skills.
  • Question your preconceptions.
  • Plan for feedback.
culture and communication
Culture and Communication
  • Good communication demands special sensitivity and skills when communicators are from different cultures.
dimensions of western culture
Dimensions of Western Culture
  • Individualism
    • Initiative
    • Self-assertion
    • Personal achievement
dimensions of western culture17
Dimensions of Western Culture
  • Informality
    • In dress
    • Less emphasis placed on rituals, ceremonies, rank
dimensions of western culture18
Dimensions of Western Culture
  • Communication style
    • Value directness
    • Impatient with delays
    • Use words literally
dimensions of western culture19
Dimensions of Western Culture
  • Time orientation
    • Precious
    • Correlates with productivity
    • Limited supply
controlling ethnocentrism and stereotyping
Controlling Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping
  • Avoid ethnocentrism (the belief that one’s culture is superior; judging others by one’s cultural norms).
controlling ethnocentrism and stereotyping21
Controlling Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping
  • Develop tolerance.
    • Practice empathy.
    • Become nonjudgmental.
    • Celebrate diversity.
    • Develop patience.
controlling ethnocentrism and stereotyping22
Controlling Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping
  • Move beyond stereotypes.
    • Look beneath surface.
    • Discover individual personal qualities.
adapting oral messages to intercultural audiences
Adapting OralMessages to Intercultural Audiences
  • Learn some language of the host country.
  • Use plain English.
  • Observe nonverbal communication.
  • Encourage feedback.
  • Check frequently for comprehension.
  • Speak slowly and enunciate clearly.
  • Accept blame for any misunderstandings.
  • Listen without interrupting.
adapting written messages to intercultural audiences
Adapting Written Messages to Intercultural Audiences
  • Use a translator for important and persuasive documents and those with wide distribution.
  • Write with short sentences and short paragraphs.
  • Include relative pronouns (that, which, who).
  • Use precise, simple words (end instead of terminate).
adapting written messages to intercultural audiences25
Adapting Written Messages to Intercultural Audiences
  • Avoid contractions (they are instead of they're).
  • Avoid idioms (right as rain), slang (burned out), acronyms (snafu), abbreviations (ad, rep), and jargon (green mail).
  • Write out most numbers; for money, use the listener's currency.
changing the structure of business
Changing the Structure of Business

Businesses will adopt the following practices:

  • Team-oriented management
  • Employee empowerment
  • Flattened organizations
identifying the benefits of diversity
Identifying the Benefits of Diversity

Diversity benefits:

  • Consumers
  • Work teams
  • Business organizations
communicating effectively in a diverse workplace
Communicating Effectively in a Diverse Workplace
  • Invite, use, and give feedback.
  • Make fewer assumptions.
  • Learn about your cultural self.
  • Learn about other cultures and identity groups.
  • Seek common ground.
communicating effectively in a diverse workplace29
Communicating Effectively in a Diverse Workplace
  • Understand the value of differences.
  • Don’t expect conformity.
  • Create zero tolerance for bias and stereotypes.
  • Practice focused, thoughtful, and open-minded listening.
using communication technologies
Using Communication Technologies
  • Information collection
  • Word processing
  • Electronic mail
  • Presentations
using communication technologies31
Using Communication Technologies

Information Collection

  • Use internal company databases for suchinformation as customer names, addresses, preferences.
  • Use commercial on-line services, such as Electric Library Canada and Lexis-Nexis, to collect specialized information.
using communication technologies32
Using Communication Technologies

Information Collection

  • Use Sympatico and AOL Canada for cheaper, generalized services.
  • Use Internet for access to World Wide Web sites.
using communication technologies33
Using Communication Technologies

Word Processing

  • Learn to use features of your program competently.
  • Develop keyboarding skills so that you can compose quickly and accurately.
using communication technologies34
Using Communication Technologies

Electronic Mail

  • Eliminates “telephone tag” and cuts telephone bills.
  • Improves response time and reduces time-zone barriers.
using communication technologies35
Using Communication Technologies

Electronic Mail

  • Enables writer to digest message and respond thoughtfully.
  • Reduces paper use, filing space, and printer use.

Major Disadvantage: Information over-load resulting from mass of unsorted messages.

using communication technologies36
Using Communication Technologies

Presentations

  • Windows-based graphics programs produce professional presentations.
  • Most popular programs are Corel Presentations and Microsoft PowerPoint.
  • Templates help beginners create special effects.
try your skill
Try Your Skill

1. Encoding is the process of:

a. Creating a meaningful dialogue.

b. Selecting and organizing symbols to represent a message.

c. Understanding the meaning of a message.

try your skill38
Try Your Skill

1. Encoding is the process of:

a. Creating a meaningful dialogue.

b.Selecting and organizing symbols to represent a message.

c. Understanding the meaning of a message.

try your skill39
Try Your Skill

2. Decoding is the process of:

a. Avoiding noise and interference.

b. Selecting and organizing symbols for feedback.

c. Interpreting the meaning of communicated symbols.

try your skill40
Try Your Skill

2. Decoding is the process of:

a. Avoiding noise and interference.

b. Selecting and organizing symbols for feedback.

c. Interpreting the meaning of communicated symbols.

try your skill41
Try Your Skill

3. Stereotyping can be defined as:

a. Belief in the superiority of one’s own race.

b. Oversimplified behavioural pattern applied uncritically to groups.

c. Empathic, appreciating beliefs and practices differing from your own.

try your skill42
Try Your Skill

3. Stereotyping can be defined as:

a. Belief in the superiority of one’s own race.

b. Oversimplified behavioural pattern applied uncritically to groups.

c. Empathic, appreciating beliefs and practices differing from your own.

try your skill43
Try Your Skill

4. Ethnocentrism can be defined as:

a. Belief in the superiority of one’s own race.

b. Oversimplified behavioural pattern applied uncritically to groups.

c. Sympathetic and appreciating beliefs and practices differing from your own.

try your skill44
Try Your Skill

4. Ethnocentrism can be defined as:

a. Belief in the superiority of one’s own race.

b. Oversimplified behavioural pattern applied uncritically to groups.

c. Sympathetic and appreciating beliefs and practices differing from your own.

try your skill45
Try Your Skill

List four electronic resources you can use to collect business information.

1.

2.

3.

4.

try your skill46
Try Your Skill

List four electronic resources you can use to collect business information.

1. Internal company databases

2. Commercial on-line services

3. Generalized services

4. The Internet

try your skill47
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

1. Is a collection of voluntarily linked computer networks.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail

try your skill48
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

1. Is a collection of voluntarily linked computer networks.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail

try your skill49
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

2. Carries messages electronically over networks connected by telephone lines and satellites.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail

try your skill50
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

2. Carries messages electronically over networks connected by telephone lines and satellites.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail

try your skill51
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

3. Is software used to write, edit, and format letters and other business documents.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail

try your skill52
Try Your Skill

Select the communication technology that . . .

3. Is software used to write, edit, and format letters and other business documents.

a. Word processing

b. Internet

c. Electronic mail