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Designing Distance Education Learning Materials to Cater for Different Learning Styles Dr. Mohamed Ally Athabasca University Canada firstname.lastname@example.org 13º Congresso Internacional da ABED September 2, 2007 Objective
Dr. Mohamed Ally
13º Congresso Internacional da ABED
September 2, 2007
By the end of this session you will be able to identify your own learning style and describe how to design distance education materials for different learning styles.
Strength:Innovation & ideas
Function By: Value clarification
Goals: To be involved in important issues and bring harmony.
Strength: Creating concepts & models
Function by: Thinking things through
Goals: Intellectual recognition
Strength:Practical application of ideas
Function By:Factual data from“hands on” experience
Goals: Align their view of present with future security
Strength: Action, getting things done
Function By: Acting and testing experience
Goals: To bring action to ideas
Tend to be empathetic
Find theoretical approaches to be unhelpful
Prefer to treat each situation as a unique case
Learn best from specific examples in which they can be involved
Related more to other students rather than the instructor
Learn from specific experienceConcrete Experience (CE)
Provide real life examples that students can relate to.
Provide opportunities to interact with other students e.g. small group work using computer conference or videoconferencing.
Prefer instructor/tutor to be a coach.Implications for Distance Education
More oriented towards things and symbols, and less towards other people
Learn best in instructor-directed, impersonal learning situations that emphasize theory and systematic analysis
Do not learn from unstructured "discovery learning" approaches such as exercises and simulations
Good at logical analysis of ideas
Like to do systematic planningAbstract Conceptualization (AC)
Rely heavily on careful observation in making judgment
Prefer learning situations such as presentations
Look for the meaning of things
Tend to be introvertsReflective Observation (RO)
Prefer to do activities such as projects, homework, or group discussions
Do not like passive learning situations such as presentations and readings
Get things done
Like to take risks
Tend to be extrovertsActive Experimentation (AE)
Like to create theoretical models
More concerned with abstract concepts rather than with people.
They are good at planningAssimilator
Like to apply ideas
Tend to be unemotional
Prefer to work with things rather than with people
They have narrow technical interestConverger
69% of the students are visual, yet instruction is mostly verbal and textual
28% of the students are global, yet we seldom focus on the ``big picture''Learning Style Data (Montgomery)
The distance education experience should create a strong sense of presence.Presence in Distance Education
Active strategies can be built into distance education materials to allow learners to process the information.Sample Strategies for Distance Education
Use the browsing capabilities of the web to encourage higher level learning.
Network learning theory suggests that information is stored as networks in LTM. Hence, the hypermedia structure of the web should facilitate storage and retrieval.
Visuals can be integrated into the learning materials.
Allow collaboration using synchronous and asynchronous communication.
Use guest experts.
Access on-line libraries.
Use computer conferences for student-student and instructor-student interaction.
Ask students to keep an electronic journal.
Link to appropriate learning materials on the web
Connect to the learner and gain interest (Rationale)
Set expectations for learning (Objectives)
Include strategies to organize the learning (Advance Organizer)
Check for readiness (Prerequisites)
Check for prior knowledge (Self-assessment)Designing Distance Education Materials
Bring Closure to the Learning Experience
Check for Achievement of Objectives
Provide Opportunities for Real Life applicationsDesigning Distance Education Materials
Tutor and students learning style.
Which learning style adapt better to distance education?
Level of support required by the different learning styles.
Learning style and success in distance education.
Adapting instruction for different learning styles.Further Research
Ally, M. (2005). Designing Instruction for Successful Online Learning. In C. Howard (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Online Learning. Idea Group Inc. Hershey, PA.
Ally, M. (2005). Multimedia information design for mobile devices. In M. Pagani (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking. Idea Group Inc. Hershey, PA.
Ally, M. (2004). Staff Training and Development in Open and Distance Learning. In Weiyuan Zhang (Ed.) Global Perspectives: Philosophy and Practice in Distance Education. China: China Central Radio and Television University Press, p. 277-297.
Ally, M. (2004). Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Distributed Learning. In Fahua Oscar Lin (Ed.) Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents, Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing, p. 162-183.
Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of education theory for online learning. In T. Anderson and F. Elloumi (eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca: Athabasca University Press, pp. 3-32, 2004. Available at: http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/.
Montgomery, S.M. Addressing Diverse Learning Styles Through the Use of Multimedia. University of Michigan.References