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KEY FEATURES OF THE MICROFINANCE BILL, 2006. A Presentation to the Workshop on the Role of Women in the Development of Microfinance in Africa by G. Omino at Nairobi Safari Club Thursday 28 th September, 2006. BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE.

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key features of the microfinance bill 2006
KEY FEATURES OF THE MICROFINANCE BILL, 2006

A Presentation to the Workshop on the Role of Women in the Development of Microfinance in Africa

by G. Omino

at

Nairobi Safari Club

Thursday 28th September, 2006

background to the establishment of microfinance
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE
  • Financing “Real” Sectors of the Economy (1960s)

- e.g. agriculture, manufacturing, trade

- “market failure” argument

  • Results (1970s)

- subsidized interest rates

- low savings

- central bank financed government budget deficit

background to the establishment of microfinance cont
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE (cont.)

* Central Bank provided parastatals with liquidity (promissory notes)

* Weakened instruments of monetary policy (e.g unstable interest rates, exchange rates and price level; insolvent financial system)

  • Central Bank lacked adequate supervisory autonomy and capacity
background to the establishment of microfinance cont4
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE (cont.)
  • Distressed Banking Systems (1980s)

- Central Bank slow to react to banking crisis

  • Rising Fiscal Deficits

- directed credit led to inefficient use of capital

- public sector borrowing led to high inflation (e.g 78%)

background to the establishment of microfinance cont5
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE (cont.)

- overvalued currencies led to import dependence

- non-performing assets rose due to poor trade terms and mismanagement

  • Dramatic Reforms (1990s)

- IMF supported SAF/ESAF implemented

- World Bank supported SAC/SAL implemented

*to achieve non-inflationary, private sector led

growth

background to the establishment of microfinance cont6
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE (cont.)
  • Results of Reforms

- elimination of directed credit

- liberalised interest rates and exchange rates

- strengthening regulation and supervision

- bank restructuring (e.g. branch rationalisation)

- increased Central Bank autonomy

background to the establishment of microfinance cont7
BACKGROUND TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROFINANCE (cont.)

- developing financial markets (including microfinance)

  • World Bank/IMF Poverty Reduction

Strategy Paper (PRSP - Sept. 1999).

kenya s prsp 2000 2003
Kenya’s PRSP 2000-2003
  • Components and Policy Objectives of PRSP:

- to facilitate sustained and rapid economic growth

- to improve governance and security

- to increase the ability of the poor to raise their incomes

- to improve the quality of life of the poor, and

- to improve equity and participation.

institutional framework
Institutional Framework
  • The Treasury
  • Central Bank of Kenya
  • Attorney General’s Chambers
  • AMFI
institutional framework cont
Institutional Framework (cont.)
  • Develop microfinance policy,legislation and prudential guidelines
  • Other financial intermediaries, e.g. SACCOs, KPOSB, DFIs (IDB, KIE, AFC etc.)
  • Credit Reference Bureaus
  • Credit Rating Agencies
  • Process taken 2000 to 2005
microfinance policy statement
Microfinance Policy Statement
  • Role of microfinance in poverty reduction
  • Legal & regulatory framework
  • Institutional capacity
  • Tiered approach to regulation & supervision

- Tier 3: no regulation (ROSCAs)

- Tier 2: non-prudential regulation (credit- only MFIs by MoF)

- Tier 1: prudential regulation (official

supervision of deposit-taking MFIs by CBK)

  • The Microfinance Bill, 2006
economic recovery strategy
Economic Recovery Strategy
  • Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth

and Employment Creation (ERS): 2003 -

2007

  • Financial Sector Reforms under ERS:
  • Provide wider access to affordable financial services, including rural areas, thereby creating employment.
  • Enhance efficiency in the delivery of financial services to reduce cost of delivery.

- Strengthen the stability of the financial system to reduce risk of financial crisis.

contents of the microfinance bill 2006
Contents of The Microfinance Bill, 2006
  • Preliminary
  • Licensing: min. capital & capital ratios
  • Prohibited business: loan limits, insider loans
  • Ownership and Corporate Governance
  • Accounts and Audit
  • Information and Reporting Requirements
  • Inspection and Deposit Protection
  • Miscellaneous provisions: prudential regulations, penalties, disqualifications, supervisory powers, exemptions etc.
the microfinance bill 2006
THE MICROFINANCE BILL, 2006

A Bill for

An Act of Parliament to make provision for the licensing, regulation and supervision of deposit-taking Microfinance business and for connected purposes

1 short title and commencement
1. Short Title and Commencement

This Act may be cited as the Deposit-taking

Microfinance Act, 2006 and shall come into

operation on such date as the Minister may, by

notice in the Gazette, appoint.

2 interpretation
2. Interpretation

“core capital” means shareholders equity in the form of issued and fully paid-up shares of common stock plus all disclosed reserves, less good or any other intangible assets.

2 interpretation cont
2. Interpretation (cont.)

‘deposit’ means a sum of money received or

paid on terms under which it will be repaid,

with or without interest or a premium, and

either on demand or at a time or in

circumstances agreed by or on behalf of the

person making the payment and the person

receiving it, but does not include a sum of

Money which is paid as-

2 interpretation cont18
2. Interpretation (cont.)
  • an advance or part payment under a contract for the sale, hire or other provision of property or services, where the sum is repayable only if the property or services is not sold, hired or otherwise provided;
  • security for performing a contract; or
  • security for a loan granted or promised at a future date to be granted to the person making the payment, except that such sum or interest on it shall not be on lent.
2 interpretation cont19
2. Interpretation (cont.)

‘deposit-taking microfinance business’ means-

  • a microfinance business in which the person conducting the business holds himself out as accepting deposits on a day-to-day basis; and
  • Any other activity of the business which is finance, wholly or to a material extent by lending or extending credit for the account and at the risk of the person accepting the deposit, including the provision of short term loans to small or micro enterprises or low income households usually characterized by use of collateral substitutes.
3 application
3. Application

(1)This Act shall apply to deposit-taking micro- finance business.

(2) The Minister may by regulations - 

(a) specify non deposit-taking microfinance

business; and

(b) measures for the conduct of the specified non-deposit-taking microfinance business.

4 qualifications for carrying out deposit taking microfinance business
4. Qualifications for carrying out deposit taking microfinance business

(1) No person shall carry out any deposit-

taking microfinance business unless such person is-

(a) a company formed and registered under the Companies Act and the main objectives of such company is to carry out deposit-taking microfinance business; or

(b) a wholly-owned subsidiary of a bank or financial inst. Whose main objective is to carry out such business; and

(c) Holds a valid licence issued under this Act.

categories of deposit taking microfinance business
Categories of deposit taking microfinance business

The Minister may prescribe categories of deposit-taking microfinance businesses based on geographical, administrative criteria or such other criteria that the Minister may deem necessary.

11 minimum capital requirements
11. Minimum Capital Requirements

(1) An institution shall maintain minimum

capital requirements as set out in the First Schedule to this Act:

  • Core capital > 10% of TRAA + RAOBSI
  • Core capital > 8% of Total Deposits
  • Total capital > 12% of TRAA + RAOBSI
  • Core capital = Kshs 60m (US$ 820,000)
  • Core capital = Kshs 20m (US$ 274,000) – s.7
14 prohibited activities
14. Prohibited Activities

An institution shall not carry out any of the

following activities –

(a) issuing third party cheques;

(b) opening current accounts;

(c) foreign trade operations;

(d) trust operations;

(e) investing in enterprise capital;

14 prohibited activities cont
14. Prohibited Activities (cont.)

(f) wholesale and retail trade;

(g) participating in the underwriting and

placing of securities, or

(h) purchasing or otherwise acquiring any land except as may be reasonably necessary for the purpose of expanding the deposit-taking microfinance business.

17 limit on loans credit facilities
17. Limit on Loans & Credit Facilities

(1) No institution shall grant a loan or credit

facility to an end user single borrower where the loan or credit facility in the aggregate exceeds such limit of the core capital as the Central Bank may prescribe.

(2) No institution shall grant a loan or credit facility against the security of the shares of the deposit-taking microfinance business.

18 insider lending
18. Insider Lending

No institution shall grant a loan or credit

facility to an associate, officer or staff

member of the deposit-taking microfinance

business, in excess of such limits as the

Central Bank may prescribe.

19 limit on shares
19. Limit on Shares

(1) No person shall own more than twenty

five percent of the shares of a deposit-taking microfinance business.

(3) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply in the case of -

(a) a wholly owned subsidiary of a bank or a financial institution;

19 limit on shares cont
19. Limit on Shares (cont.)

(b) any other company which the Minister may, on the recommendation of the Central Bank, specify.

(4) No person shall transfer or cause to be transferred, more than ten percent of shares of an institution except with the prior approval of the Minister.

20 management of institutions
20. Management of Institutions

(1) A deposit-taking microfinance business

shall be managed by a board of directors consisting of not less than five directors and shall be headed by a chairman, who shall be a non-executive director.

21 disqualification of directors
21. Disqualification of Directors

A person shall not be qualified for appointment

as a director if such person is -

(a) is a minor or is under a legal disability;

(b) been convicted of theft, fraud, forgery, causing financial loss or perjury or has been imprisoned for three months or more;

21 disqualification of directors cont
21. Disqualification of Directors (cont.)

(c) has been removed from an office of trust on account of misconduct, abuse of office, corruption or incompetence in the last ten years;

(d) is an auditor of a company licensed to conduct deposit-taking micro-finance business.

23 financial year
23. Financial Year

The financial year of a deposit-taking microfinance business shall be the period of twelve months ending on the 31st December in each year.

29 appointment of external auditors
29. Appointment of External Auditors

(1) An institution shall appoint, annually, an

auditor qualified under Companies Act and approved by the Central Bank.

(2) No institution shall remove or change its external auditor except with the prior approval of the Central Bank.

34 publication of information
34. Publication of Information

(4)  The Central Bank and institutions may, in the ordinary course of business, in such manner as the Minister may by regulations prescribe, exchange information for the proper discharge of their functions.

(5) Regulations under sub-section (4) may provide for the establishment and operation of credit reference bureaus, for the purpose of collecting prescribed credit information on clients of institutions and disseminating the information amongst institutions for use in the ordinary course of business, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.

37 power of the central bank to intervene in management
37. Power of the Central Bank to Intervene in Management

(1) The Central Bank may intervene in the affairs of an institution in the following circumstances -

(a) where the institution has contravened the

provisions of this Act or conditions upon

which the license was granted;

(b) where the business is being conducted in a manner detrimental to the interests of the depositors or creditors;

37 power of the central bank to intervene in management cont
37. Power of the Central Bank to Intervene in Management (cont.)

(c) where the institution has failed to

maintain the minimum core capital;

(d) where the institution has insufficient

assets to cover its liabilities.

38 liquidation of an institution by the central bank
38. Liquidation of an Institution by the Central Bank

(1)Where an institution becomes insolvent, the Central Bank may appoint the Deposit Protection Fund Board established under the Banking Act, to be a liquidator of the institution; and the appointment shall have the same effect as the appointment of a liquidator by the High Court under the provisions of the Companies Act.

39 contribution to the deposit protection fund
39. Contribution to the Deposit Protection Fund

(1) All institutions shall contribute to the Deposit Protection Fund established under the Banking Act.

40 protection of deposits
40. Protection of Deposits

(1) The Deposit Protection Fund Board shall,

by order in the Kenya Gazette, determine the amount of balance to be maintained by a customer of an institution, as a protected deposit.

45 restriction on use of the word deposit taking microfinance business
45. Restriction on Use of the Word “Deposit Taking Microfinance Business”

No person shall use the word “deposit-taking microfinance business” or any of its derivatives or any other words indicating the transaction of deposit-taking microfinance business or the equivalent, in the name, description or title under which it transacts business in Kenya or make any representation that the person transacts deposit-taking microfinance business unless such person is licensed under this Act.

47 general penalty
47. General Penalty

A person who contravenes any provisions of this Act commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one million shillings or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to both.

48 regulations
48. Regulations

(1)The Central Bank may, with the approval of the Minister, make regulations prescribing anything which under this Act may be prescribed by the Central Bank;

(2) Subject to this Act, the Minister may, on the recommendation of the Central Bank, make regulations generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Act.

48 regulations to include
48. Regulations – to include:

Regulations to include the following:

  • Licensing
  • Capital adequacy
  • Liquidity
  • Asset quality (risk classif. of assets & provision)
  • Prohibited business
  • Governance (conduct, duties & resp. of directors, mgt. and other officers)
  • Enforcement action (enforcement of laws & regulations) etc.