Socrates & Plato By: Damien Parasnauth & Krishna Lad
About the Philosophers Socrates • Lifespan: 469 – 399 B.C.E. (Before Common Era) • Philosopher and a Teacher • Students: Plato, Alcibiades, Aristippus, Antisthenes, Xenophone, Crito • Military Hero; served Athens during warfare Plato • Lifespan: 428 – 348 B.C.E. • Student of Socrates • Known to be one of the greatest philosophers of all time • Real name thought to be Aristocles • Born in Athens
Time of Contribution/Influences Socrates • 399 BC was the time of his death which triggered some of his students, to develop their philosophical theories • At the age of 70, Socrates was sentenced to death for being an Atheist and a ‘corrupter of youth’ • He later consumed poisoned hemlock and died • Following Socrates’s death a great philosopher ensued Plato • Around 387 BC he founded a school of learning called the ‘Academy’ • The Greek Society was existent in Plato's Era which he claimed did not meet the standards he had set for society and so it influenced him to formulate his ideas
Major Contributions Socrates • Contributed his method of ‘Dialectic’ (Greek translation: Art of Conversation) • Examined statements, drawing conclusions, and if true, there would not be false consequences • Socrates then applied this method to ethical dilemmas Plato • Plato continued Socrates’s Dialectic method to attempt to explain Justice • Theorized that man was a reflection of society • If everyone performed justly, so would society, but he also theorized everyone has different beliefs so society would remain unbalanced • Then requested a ‘Philosopher King’ to balance society, but realized nobody has pure justice qualities, so the idea of ‘laws’ came about
Philosopher’s View Socrates and Plato • Both believed the idea of Law was to govern society • The idea of a government would be to ensure parameters and enforce justice • The problem these two philosophers had was that they believed ‘Laws’ would not recognize the differences between the individuals of society as everyone has different morals and beliefs • Even though Law is to enforce Justice, these philosophers believed everyone had a different belief Justice • Linking to society now, as we still have ethical dilemmas
Philosopher Criticism Socrates • Criticized other theories that knowledge is virtue, and that the care for the soul was the top priority for living • Many people theorized that it was acceptable to injure your enemies, especially if those enemies attempted to/already had injured you • Socrates criticized that it was under no circumstance, acceptable to injure another being Plato • Plato criticized the idea of Democracy and Law • Laws could not hold account for everyone’s differences and would be unfair and unjust to those of society • Believed that having someone in Power would be pointless as the power would most likely corrupt that person • Democracy decided my vote totals: Living our lives based on other votes
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