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Nuclear Treaties. Dennis Silverman, U C Irvine Source: www.atomicarchive.com/Treaties/. Recent Nuclear Weapons Limitations.

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nuclear treaties

Nuclear Treaties

Dennis Silverman, U C Irvine

Source:

www.atomicarchive.com/Treaties/

recent nuclear weapons limitations
Recent Nuclear Weapons Limitations
  • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972): limited to 100 ABMs at one site. U. S. withdrew from in 2002 to build ABM system in Alaska and California. 10 missiles in 2004 and 10 in 2005, protective against N. Korea.
  • Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (2002): U. S. and Russia limited to 1700 to 2200 targeted nuclear weapons each by 2012, but no removed warheads have to be destroyed.
previous reductions
Previous Reductions
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (1972): Froze number of missiles at 1972 levels.
  • SALT II (1979): 2,400 limit on delivery vehicles. Agreed to, but U. S. repudiated this in 1986.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991): limit of 1,600 delivery vehicles; 6,000 warheads.
previous reductions1
Previous Reductions
  • START II (1993):
    • by 2001, reduction to 4,250 deployed warheads;
    • by 2002, reduction to 3,500 deployed warheads.
  • Russia withdrew in 2002 because of U. S. cancellation of the ABM treaty.
non testing treaty
Non-testing Treaty
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996): 26 of 44 nations ratified the treaty.
  • 15 of 44 signed but did not ratify, including the U. S., Russia, Israel, China, and Iran.
  • Three nations have not signed or ratified: India, Pakistan, and North Korea.
nuclear non proliferation treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
  • U. S., U.S.S.R., France, Great Britain, and China agree not to export nuclear weapons technology.
  • Non-weapons states agree not to develop nuclear weapons. Signed by 187 countries.
  • Israel, Pakistan, India and Cuba are the only non-signing countries.
cooperative threat reduction
Cooperative Threat Reduction
  • $1 billion per year to the former Soviet Union (Nunn-Lugar bill)
  • Over 12 years has removed 6,000 nuclear warheads, eliminated 1,500 ICBMs
  • Destroying Russia’s 40,000 tons of chemical weapons stockpile
  • Replacing remaining 3 Russian plants that produce weapons grade Pu with fossil fuel plants
summary
Summary
  • Many nuclear weapons have been and are being produced in countries engaged in regional conflicts.
  • This presents a supremely dangerous situation for them and the world at large.
  • Can more be done by treaties or economic or other pressures to lessen the threat?