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Student Goals, Engagement and Outcomes: The Path to Success. Mark Troy Yunhee Bae Texas A&M University AIR Forum, May 21, 2013. Goals and engagement are dimensions that facilitate student learning and lead to student success. How are these dimensions related?

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student goals engagement and outcomes the path to success

Student Goals, Engagement and Outcomes: The Path to Success

Mark Troy

YunheeBae

Texas A&M University

AIR Forum, May 21, 2013

goals and engagement are dimensions that facilitate student learning and lead to student success
Goals and engagement are dimensions that facilitate student learning and lead to student success
  • How are these dimensions related?
  • Are some more effective than others at facilitating learning?
  • What combinations of goals and engagement lead to what types of learning?
instrument
Instrument
  • Student Experience in the Research University (SERU)
  • Administered Spring 2012
  • 42263 students in Six universities
    • Minnesota
    • Pittsburgh
    • Rutgers
    • South Carolina
    • Texas A&M
    • Virginia
  • 7603 responses from TAMU
methods
Methods
  • Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to specify:
    • three goal factors (epistemic goals, intrinsic goals, and instrumental goals),
    • four engagement factors (attention and interest, class preparation, consolidated learning activities, and extra interaction with faculty),
    • three outcomes factors (knowledge/comprehension, research skills, and communication skills).
  • Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) CFA to validate criterion validities through interrelationships between academic engagement constructs and academic outcomes including the three outcome factors and GPA
  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to identify relationships between factors
i inputs
I: Inputs
  • Knowledge and skill upon entering the university
  • Student goals
    • Epistemic goal
    • Instrumental goal
    • Intrinsic goal
  • Background information
    • Parents’ education
    • Parents’ household income
e engagement
E: Engagement
  • Academic Engagement
    • Attention and interest in class
    • Class responsibilities
    • Consolidated learning activities
    • Extra interactions with faculty
  • Cognitive Strategies
    • Elaboration
    • Critical Thinking
    • Rehearsal
o outcomes
O: Outcomes
  • Knowledge and Comprehension Skills
  • Research Skills
  • Communication Skills
  • GPA
criterion validation
Criterion Validation
  • MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes)
  • Correlations between factor scores and criteria variables
    • Parents’ education
    • Parents’ household income
    • GPA
slide16

Correlations Between Factors

  • and Criterion Variables

Note. ** : p < .001; * p < .01

slide17

Correlations Between Factors

  • and Criterion Variables (continued)

Note. ** : p < .001; * p < .01

slide18

Correlations Between Factors

  • and Criterion Variables

Note. ** : p < .001; * p < .01

summary
Summary
  • Cronbach’s alphas (.53 ≤α≤.85; mean = .72) were acceptable for all constructs indicating good internal consistency.
  • CFAs on each measurement model of AE, SCG, SRLO, ECSM yielded relevant factor loadings (.32 ≤ λ ≤ .94; mean = .64) with good or acceptable model fits, supporting the construct validity of AE, SCG, and SPLO .
  • The relationship of GPA with “Class Responsibilities” ,”Instrumental Goal”, “Knowledge and Comprehension” at the present, and “Elaboration” were the strongest in AE, SCG, SPLO, and ECSM respectively.
  • Parents’ annual income is most likely to influence “Knowledge and Comprehension” at present, while, Parent Education is most likely to be related with students’ “Knowledge and Comprehension” at starting indicating a greater impact of parent income than parent education on students’ college learning outcomes
  • Necessary for the investigation of the relationships among AE, SCG, SPLO, ECSM and GPA to understand the paths to the learning outcomes.
slide20

Paths to Student Success in the SERU

: The Relationships among 5 domains of students’ Self-Reported Constructs and their cumulative GPA through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

  • To investigate the relationships among Academic Engagement, Students’ College Goal, Learning Outcomes, and Cognitive Strategies.--> How do those constructs lead to each learning outcome including student’s perceived learning outcomes (Knowledge & Comprehension, Research Skills, and communication Skills) and GPA ?
  • To better understand students’ college experiences and to develop productive policies and programs to heighten students’ competencies for their paths to success.
slide21

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

Attention & Interest

Epistemic Goal

Class Responsibilities

Pre- Research Skills

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

Intrinsic goal

Consolidated Learning

Pre- Communication Skills

Instrumental Goal

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

slide22

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

Attention & Interest

Epistemic Goal

Class Responsibilities

Pre- Research Skills

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

Intrinsic goal

Consolidated Learning

Pre- Communication Skills

Instrumental Goal

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

slide23

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

.54

Epistemic Goal

R2 = .01

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

Pre- Research Skills

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.59

Intrinsic goal

R2 = .41

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

R2 = .18

Pre- Communication Skills

Instrumental Goal

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide24

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide25

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide26

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide27

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide28

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide29

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

-.06

.33

.16

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

R2 = .08

.49

.00(ns)

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.16

.06

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

.07

.02

.10

.59

.16

.00(ns)

.00

.01(ns)

.05

-.04

.00(ns)

.17

.03

.07

Intrinsic goal

.08

R2 = .41

.09

-.07

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.58

.25

R2 = .18

-.04

.10

.07

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.28

.14

.13

-.07

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide30

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

.33

R2 = .21

.16

-.06

-.10

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

-.01(ns)

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

.64

R2 = .08

.06

.00(ns)

.06

.07

Pre- Research Skills

.10

Post- Research Skills

.02

.59

.12

.00(ns)

.00(ns)

.05

-.04

.04

.17

.04

.07

Intrinsic goal

.01(ns)

.10

R2 = .50

-.07

.25

.09

R2 = .02

Consolidated Learning

.10

.58

.07

R2 = .18

-.04

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.28

.06

-.03

.14

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

-.07

.13

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.07

.01(ns)

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide31

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

.33

Attention & Interest

R2 = .21

.16

-.10

-.06

.18

.54

-.11

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

R2 = .01

.02

.13

Class Responsibilities

.58

R2 = .08

.06

.00(ns)

.07

.00

.10

Pre- Research Skills

.12

Post- Communication Skills

.02

.59

.10

.00(ns)

.00

-.05

.05

-.04

.02

.17

.09

.07

Intrinsic goal

.04

R2 = .49

.11

-.07

.25

R2 = .02

.09

.10

.58

Consolidated Learning

.07

R2 = .18

-.04

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.05

Instrumental Goal

-.01(ns)

-.01

.28

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

.14

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

-.07

.13

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide32

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

Now

Post-

Knowledge & Comprehension

Students’ Perceived Learning Outcomes

at Starting

Students’ College Goal Orientations

Academic Engagement

.33

Post- Research Skills

.16

-.10

Pre-Knowledge & Comprehension

.05

Attention & Interest

-.06

R2 = .21

.18

Post- Communication Skills

-.11

.54

-.03

.11

Epistemic Goal

.00(ns)

.00

-.01(ns)

-.01

.06

.07

.26

.10

.02

R2 = .01

.13

Class Responsibilities

-.10

R2 = .08

.00(ns)

-.10

.00

Pre- Research Skills

.04

Cumulative GPA

.02

.01(ns)

.00(ns)

.59

.00

.11

.05

-.04

-.08

.17

-.02

.07

Intrinsic goal

.02

.25

R2 = .07

.10

.08

.07

-.07

.09

Consolidated Learning

R2 = .02

.58

-.04

R2 = .18

.14

.11

.04

.04

.09

Pre- Communication Skills

.28

.05

.14

Instrumental Goal

-.07

-.01(ns)

-.01

Extra-Interaction with Faculty

.06

-.03

R2 = .02

R2 = .15

.13

Emphasis on Cognitive Strategies in the Major

.01(ns)

.01

.07

.01(ns)

.01

Elaboration

Critical Thinking

Rehearsal

.67

.55

.46

slide33

NOTE:

  • Model Fit - Χ2/DF: 3250.59/39; CFI: .99; RMSEA: .04
  • Each construct value (factor score) was composed of 1) standardized item scores to address the difference in item-response scale, 2) the mean of item scores weighted by factor loadings, and 3) the resulting scores standardized into a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2 .
  • The SEM includes the error-correlations, but not shown in the figure .
  • The color of each construct box is correspondent with that of each path coefficient box
  • The Italic numbers followed by “(ns)” indicate non-significant path coefficients
  • The numbers following “ “ indicate the strongest impact of each domain on each construct .
conclusion
Conclusion

Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded several insights into the dimensions that have the greatest impacts on student learning.

  • Not surprisingly, for any learning outcome, the student’s incoming ability has the greatest effect on current ability.
  • Following that, the greatest effect on “knowledge and comprehension” is found on the path from “pre-communication skills”, to “intrinsic goal”, to “attention and interest in class”, and from “elaboration”.
  • The most important factors leading to GPA were found to be the SPLO of “knowledge and comprehension,” and the AE of “class responsibilities”.
  • “Elaboration” considered a high level of cognitive strategy did not contribute to GPA.
  • The effect of “critical thinking” on GPA was significant, but negative.
  • “Elaboration” is the strongest factor of ECSM on all of SPLO.
conclusion continued
Conclusion, continued
  • There are multiple paths to any desired outcome.
  • Not all engagement is equal. Engagement activities need to be appropriate to the desired outcome.
  • Goals are important
contact us
Contact Us
  • Mark Troy
    • metroy@tamu.edu
  • YunheeBae
    • BYH777@gmail.com
  • To download this presentation, go to:
    • http://dars.tamu.edu/SERU