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Life in the Industrial Age. Chapter 22 Arianna Guiseppone F period. The Industrial Revolution Spreads. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution Britain was at the top of industry.

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life in the industrial age

Life in the Industrial Age

Chapter 22

Arianna Guiseppone

F period

the industrial revolution spreads
The Industrial Revolution Spreads
  • At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution Britain was at the top of industry.
  • By the mid 1800s other nations had joined them, and did so quickly because nations such as Germany, France and the United States had a more abundant supply of coal iron and other resources.
  • It was also easier for the other countries because all they had to do was follow Britain’s lead.

Germany and the United States especially took their spot at the head of industry.

  • Other nations, especially in eastern and southern Europe, like Russia, didn’t progress as quickly. Russia for instance didn’t have any useful resources
  • The new industrial nations underwent social changes such as rapid urbanization.
  • The factory system produced their products at low prices so now the common people could afford things they once could not.
  • The demand for goods created jobs along with the building of city railroads and factories.
  • This changed politics because leaders had to now meet the demands of an industrial society.
  • Western powers came to dominate the world more than ever

New methods of production:

  • Interchangeable parts-identical components that could be used in the place of one another
  • -these improved the efficiency of the growing factory systems
  • Assembly line- production method that breaks down a complex job into series of smaller tasks

Technology and Industry:

  • In the late 1800s many companies were hiring professional chemists, biologists, and engineers to develop new products.
  • This sped up the pace of technological change
  • Henry Bessemer developed steel. With adjustments by other engineers to make it cheaper, steel became the major material used in tools, bridges and railroads.
  • As steel production soared , industrialized countries measured their success in steel output

Chemists developed things like aspirin, perfume, and the first artificial food products.

  • Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, which was much safer than current explosives.
  • In the late 1800s Alessandro Volta developed the first battery and later experiments created dynamo, which generated electricity. Then Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb.
  • By 1890 electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of industrial power

Inventions and Improvements:

  • Gasoline powered internal combustion engine was invented and from that Gottlieb Daimler used it to power the first automobile. France and Germany were early automakers
  • Then Henry Ford made cars that went up to 25 mph and then he began to use the assembly line
  • In 1903 the Write brothers invented the first airplane, but passenger travel didn’t begin until the 1920s
  • Samuel F.B. Morse developed the telegraph. This inevitably made the world smaller and communication became even faster
  • In 1876 Alexander Gram Bell patented the telephone and by the 1890s Marconi invented the radio, then used Morse code to send messages on it

Corporations- businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock.

  • They come to dominate industry
  • Powerful business leaders created monopolies and destroyed competing companies.
  • Cartel-an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or divide up markets.
  • Reformers called for laws to prevent monopolies and in the early 1900s same governments moved for this law
the world of cities
The World of Cities
  • Between 1800 and 1900 the population of Europe more than doubled. This happened because the death rate fell.
  • People were taking better care of themselves and there were medical advancements and improvements in public sanitation.
  • In 1870 Louis Pasteur clearly proved the link between germs and disease
  • Then he developed pasteurization and a vaccine for rabies

Anesthetics came into the world in 1846

  • Hospitals were for the most part still unsafe and unhygienic.
  • Joseph Lister- the English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevented infection and insisted surgeons wash their hands.
  • Eventually the use of antiseptics drastically reduced deaths from infection

City life came to dominate the West and changed drastically

  • Wide boulevards were built in Paris, which made it harder for rebels to put up barricades and easier for troops to reach any part of the city
  • As the century progressed rich people moved further from cities and the poor people lived inside cities in slums.

Improvements in cities: paved streets, sewage systems, cleaner water, and the usage of steel

  • Workers tried to improve the harsh conditions of industrial life.
  • They slowly gained progress and gained:
  • -mutual-aid societies to help sick or injured workers
  • -women and men joined social parties or organized unions
  • -governments could no longer ignore them

Workers won the right to organize unions to bargain on their behalf

  • Unions grew rapidly.
  • Governments passed laws and regulations for the conditions in factories and mines.
  • Starting in Germany, western governments set up programs for old-age pensions and disability insurance
  • Overall the standard of living for workers improved
changing attitudes and values
Changing Attitudes and Values
  • The Industrial Revolution change the old social order in the western world. With the spread of Industry, a more complex social structure emerged.
  • By the late 1800s Western Europe’s new upper class included superrich industrial and business families as well as the old nobility. By tradition, the upper class held the top jobs in government and military
  • The growing middle class was pushing its way up the social ladder.
  • At the base of the social ladder were workers and peasants

A strict code of etiquette governed social behavior.

  • Within the family circle, the division of labor between wife and husband changed. Most middle class husbands worked in and office while the wife would raise their children, direct servants, and possibly doing religious or charitable work.
  • This rarely applied to the lower class women worked for low wages in factories, along with taking care of her home and children.

Across Europe and the United States, politically active women campaigned for fairness and marriage, divorce and property laws

  • By the late 1800s married women in same countries had won the right to control their own property
  • Women’s suffrage-votes for women
  • In general suffragists faced intense opposition.
  • This lasted in Europe and the United States until after WWI, although on the edges of the western world, women made faster strides

The growth of schools:

  • By the late 1800s reformers convinced governments to set up public school systems and mandatory education for all children
  • More and more children were in school and education quality improved.
  • High schools were also being expanded.
  • In general only middle class families could afford high school for their sons
  • Universities also expanded in this period, too
  • By the 1400s a few small colleges for women opened

The Challenge of Science:

  • In the early 1800s John Dalton developed the atomic theory.
  • He showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make all chemical substances.
  • Charles Lyell offered evidence to show that the earth had formed over millions of years.
  • This didn’t agree with biblical accounts of creation
  • Then workers in Germany accidently uncovered fossilized bones of prehistoric people, further proving Lyell’s theory

The Darwin Furor:

  • Charles Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years
  • To explain this he put forward his theory of natural selection, which was that Natural forces “selected” those with physical traits best adapted to their environment
  • He said over time natural selection would give rise to an entirely new species.
  • This ignited a furious debate between theologians and scientists
  • Social Darwinism-The application of Darwinism to the study of human society, specifically a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.
  • Racism-the belief that one racial group is superior to another. This was encouraged by Social Darwinism

Despite the challenge of new ideas, Christianity continued to be a major force in western society. Churches remained at the center of communities and church leaders influenced political, social, and educational developments

  • Social gospel-a movement that urged Christians to social service
  • By 1878 William and Catherine Boot had set up the Salvation Army in London. It spread Christian teachings along with providing social services. Their daughter helped bring the Salvation Army to the U.S. and Canada
a new culture
A New Culture
  • Romanticism- nineteenth-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
  • Realism-artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is
  • Impressionism- school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
  • Which condition is most necessary to the process of industrialization in a society? 1.  dependence on subsistence agriculture  2.  creation of a one-crop economy  3.  availability of investment capital  4.  capture of foreign lands
  • 3.  availability of investment capital

-Europeans sought new markets for their goods.-Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs.-European middle class gained political power.What was the major cause of these changes in Europe?  1.  Industrial Revolution  2.  rise of feudalism  3.  Congress of Vienna  4.  French Revolution

  • 1.  Industrial Revolution

A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the 1.  concentration of workers in urban areas  2.  increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power  3.  formation of powerful craft guilds  4.  control of agricultural production by governments


1.  concentration of workers in urban areas


As a society becomes more urbanized and industrialized, it tends to

  • (1)develop a more ridged class system
  • (2)modify traditional beliefs and customs
  • (3)resist cultural diffusion
  • (4)depend more on the extended family structure
  • (2)modify traditional beliefs and customs

The success of women’s suffrage movement in the 20th-century Europe resulted in part from women

  • (1) holding high political office
  • (2) working in factories during WWI
  • (3) being encouraged to have large families
  • (4) serving in combat positions during WWI

(2) working in factories during WWI