Life in the Industrial Age 1800-1914
The Industrial Revolution Spreads • By the mid 1800s the Industrial Revolution entered its second phase: • New Industrial powers emerged • With spinning and weaving factories opening in Belgium (1807 William Cockerill) they become the second European country to Industrialize. • Later other countries like Germany and the United States race to industrialize utilizing their vast resources. By 1900 the United States was producing 30% of the world's industrialized goods. • Like in Britain, life for the working class got worse...
Technology sparks Economic Growth • Henry Bessemer develops a new process for making steel from iron in 1856. We begin to see the inception of skyscrapers... • In the lat 1800s electricity replaces steam as factory power. • Thomas Edison makes the first light bulb in the 1870s... further worsening factory conditions... • Interchangeable parts and the assembly line bring about quicker production.
Technology (cont) • Starting in 1886 with Karl Benz the first automobile comes about (3-wheels). • One year later Gottlieb Daimler introduced the first 4-wheel design. • Henry Ford produces cars that can reach 25mphs! • Orville and Wilbur Wright have the first tested flight in 1903 at“Kitty Hawk".
Technology (cont) • Samuel F.B. Morse develops the telegraph in 1844. By the 1860s and underground/water line connected America with Europe. • Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone in 1876... further quickening communication. • Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio in 1901... the first Morse-code radio message is sent from Britain to Canada later that year.
Giant Companies Rise • With little regulation companies begin to grow, and monopolies continue to emerge and exploit the working class. • John D. Rockefeller builds Standard Oil Company into an empire... • With the rise of these "Captains of Industry", governments move toward regulation of industries.
The Rise of Cities • With the population boom from the Industrial Revolution cities grow rapidly. • In the 1840s people like Louis Pasteur (microbes and disease link), Robert Koch (researching Tuberculosis), Florence Nightingale (insists on better hospital hygiene after the Crimean War), and Joseph Lister (antiseptics for infection) enact change in medicine. • Sidewalks, Sewers, and Skyscrapers emerge. • Slum and tenement conditions continue for the poor working class.
The Working Class Advances • Mutual Aid Societies and Labor Unions continue to grow... By the late 1800s most Western countries had given men the right to vote, and workers had won the right to form labor unions. • By 1900 Britain - 3 million, Germany - 2 million, France - 1 million