What is the Toulmin Method?

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# What is the Toulmin Method? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

What is the Toulmin Method?. Is a simple, practical method of reasoning created by a British philosopher, Stephen Toulmin He divided arguments into three logical parts: Data : The evidence to prove something Claim : Your opinion statement, what you are proving

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What is the Toulmin Method?
• Is a simple, practical method of reasoning created by a British philosopher, Stephen Toulmin
• He divided arguments into three logical parts:
• Data: The evidence to prove something
• Claim: Your opinion statement, what you are proving
• Warrant: The rationale that connects the data and the claim, the essential elaboration to make logical connections
• Data
• Because of segregation, police brutality, and unfair discrimination,
• Claim
• therefore African Americans must nonviolently revolt until equality is attained
• Warrant
• since African Americans are entitled to the same privileges as whites according to the Declaration of Independence and the Emancipation Proclamation..
Syllogism – 3 parts to an argument
• Students should be able to read a persuasive text and determine what the data, claim, and warrant are in the article-- thus, breaking down the argument, an analysis.
• Bedford Reader uses a good example for us to start. Let’s break down the argument into a logical statement that incorporates the following information. Try to see if you can phrase it in the following way.
• Because ___________________(data), therefore we should or must do ________________(claim), since (warrant or rationale)__________________.
From Bedford
• Excerpt is from Maire Flynn who was asked to produce a condensed argument in three short paragraphs.
• “Data: Over the past five years, assistance in the form of food stamps has not had the effect of decreasing the number of people on welfare. Despite this help, 95% of long-term recipients remain below the poverty line today” (522)
• Let’s create the first part of the sentence.
• Because ________________________.
• EX: Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must _________________________
Claim
• Maire Flynn’s second paragraph.
• “CLAIM: The present system of distributing food stamps is a dismal failure, a less effective way to help the needy than other possible ways” (522).
• Example: Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must _________________________
• Example: Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must find alternative methods in helping people since ____________________.
Warrant
• “WARRANT: No one is happy to receive charity. We need to encourage people to quit the welfare rolls; we need to make sure the government aid goes only to the deserving. More effective than giving out food stamps would be to help untrained young people learn job skills; to help single mothers with small children to obtain childcare, freeing them for the job market; and to enlarge and improve our state employment counseling and job-placement services. The problem of poverty will be helped only if more people will find jobs and become self-sufficient” (522).
• Example: Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must find alternative methods in helping people since ____________________.
• Example: Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must find alternative methods in helping people since people have not been properly trained to be self-sufficient in the workplace.
Purpose of Method
• Using the Toulmin Method helps students break down an argument to see the logical connection. From there, students can evaluate an argument if they are familiar with the topic or can be prompted to research the topic and then formulate an opinion.
Syllogism
• Therefore, we can logically sum up three paragraphs into one statement.
• Because evidence shows that assistance has not been successful in decreasing the number of people on welfare, therefore we should/must find alternative methods in helping people since people have not been properly trained to be self-sufficient in the workplace.
Where does this fit with analyzing rhetoric? Think about the Logical Appeal (LOGOS)

Rhetorical Framework for Teaching Nonfiction, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama

Exigence (the gap, the need)

Audience

Purpose

LOGOS

Central Idea: Shaped by Enthymeme –Data, Claim [assumed “since”] [ or Syllogism (Because, Therefore, Since) Toulmin Method]

ETHOS PATHOS

Appeal to character Appeal to emotions

Good sense States of life

Good character

Good will

Organization/Structure/Form

Diction Syntax Imagery Figurative Language

CREDITS/BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Elements of Literature. Ed. John Haffner Layden, et.al. 5th

Course. Texas: Holt Rinehart Winston, 2005.

5 Steps to a 5. Ed. Barbara Murphy and Estelle Rankin.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Teaching Nonfiction in AP* English. Samuel Cohen.

New York: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2005.

The Bedford Reader. Ed. X.J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy,

and Jane E. Aaron. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins,

2006.

The Well-Crafted Argument. Ed. Fred D. White and Simone J.

Billings. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.