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Historical Method of Marco-social Phenomena: Deconstructionist Perspective. EDM 6003 Historical-Comparative Method in Educational Research . The Roadmap of the Deconstructionist Approach. Hermeneutics: Post-structural analysis on text

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Historical method of marco social phenomena deconstructionist perspective l.jpg
Historical Method of Marco-social Phenomena:Deconstructionist Perspective

EDM 6003

Historical-Comparative Method in Educational Research


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The Roadmap of the Deconstructionist Approach

  • Hermeneutics: Post-structural analysis on text

  • Narrative: Poststructural analysis on intertextuality and history

  • Archaeology: Formation of discourse

  • Genealogy: Study of power/knowledge


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Hermeneutics

  • Paul Ricoeur’s working definition of hermeneutics

    ‘Hermeneutics is a discipline that has been primarily concerned with the elucidation of rules for the interpretation of texts.” (Thompson, 1981, p.36)

  • What is a Text? (Ricoeur, 1981, p. 145-164)

    • "A Text is any discourse fixed by writing" (p.145) i.e. a fixation of speech act by writing.

    • Fixation enables the speech to be conserved, i.e. durability of text

    • A text ‘divides the act of writing and the act of reading into two sides, between which there is no communication. … The text thus produces a double eclipse of the reader and the writer.’ (p. 146-47)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation (Ricoeur, 1981, p. 131-44)

    • Text as language event

      • Distanciation between language event and meaning

      • Articulation of meaning in language event is ‘the core of the whole hermeneutic problem.’ (p. 134)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Text as work

      • Distanciation between text as the work and its authors’ intention

      • ‘Hermeneutics remains the art of discerning the discourse in the work; but this discourse is only given in and through the structures of the work. Thus interpretation is the reply to the fundamental distanciation constituted by the objectification of man in work of discourse, an objectification comparable to that expressed in the products of his laboour and his art.’ (P. 138)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Distanciation between act of writing meaning and act of reading

      • Distanciation between the intention of the author and the interpretation of the reader

      • ‘The text must be able to… “decontextualizse” itself in such a way that it can be “recontextualise” in a new situation – as accomplished…by the act of reading.’ (p. 139)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Distanciation the text and the reference and denotation of discourse

      • The world of the text: ‘Reference…distinguishes discourse from language, the latter has no relation with reality, its words returning to other words in the endless circle of the dictionary. Only discourse, we shall say, intends things, applies itself to reality, expresses the world.’ (p. 140)

      • ‘The most fundamental hermeneutical problem … is to explicate the type of being-in-the world (life-world) unfolded in front of the text’. (p.141)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Self-understanding in front of the work

      • The act of appropriation, which is a well known problem in traditional hermeneutics, refers to the application of ‘the world of the work’ to the present situation of the reader.

      • ‘To understand is to understand oneself in front of the text. It is not a question of imposing upon the text our finite capacity of understanding, but of exposing ourselves to the text and receiving from it an enlarge self’


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Self-understanding in front of the work

      • ‘As a reader, I find myself only by losing myself. Reading introduces me into the imaginative variations of the ego. The metamorphosis of the world in play is also the playful metamorphosis of the ego.” (p.144)


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Criticism on alienating distanciation and ideology

      • Alienating distanciation refers to distanciation spawned from human interest, systemic distortion, and ideological hegemony


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Criticism on alienating distanciation and ideology

      • Critical hermeneutics constitutes four themes

        • Critiical reading of the production of the text: Emancipating the text from its immediate existence and giving the text its autonomy from (a) its author’s intention, (b) its cultural and sociological situations, in which it was produced, (c) its original addressee. (p.91)

        • Critical reading of the deep structure of the text (deep hermeneutic): Disclosing the depth semamtics embedded in the text, such as the narrative or the discourse working behind text


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Criticism on alienating distanciation &ideology

      • Critical hermeneutics constitutes four themes

        • Critical reading of the world of the text and the world of the present: “The power of the text to open a dimension of reality implies in principle a recourse against any given reality and thereby the possibility of a critique of the real.” (p.93) It also implies “the notion of ‘the projection of my ownmost possibilities’; this signifies that the mode of the possible, or better of the power-to be: therein resides the subversive force of the imaginary.” (p.93)

          4.Critical reading of the (reader’s) self-understanding or the self unfolded in front of the text


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Hermeneutics

  • Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation

    • Criticism on alienating distanciation &ideology

      • Critical hermeneutics constitutes four themes

        • Critical reading of the reader's self-understanding and subjectivity: "Reading introduces me to imaginative variations of the ego. The metamorphosis of the world in play is also the playful metamorphosis of the ego. In the idea of the 'imaginative variation of the ego', I see the most fundamental possibility for the critique of the illusions of the subject." (Ricoeur, 1981b, p. 94)


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Hermeneutics

  • Levels of hermeneutics

    • Hermeneutics at literal level: Decoding meanings from the literal text.

    • Hermeneutics at ontological level:

      • Encoding and decoding meanings from the ontological condition of the author

      • Encoding and decoding meanings from the ontological condition of readers

    • Hermeneutics at historical and cultural level: Encoding and decoding meanings from the historical and cultural context within which the text was produced


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Hermeneutics

  • Levels of hermeneutics

    • Hermeneutics at critical level:

      • Encoding and decoding “meanings” from the perspective of human interests

      • Encoding and decoding “meanings” from the perspective of systemic distortions of institutional context

      • Encoding and decoding “meanings” from the perspective of ideology of given cultural hegemony


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The Roadmap of the Deconstructionist Approach

  • Hermeneutics: Post-structural analysis on text

  • Narrative: Poststructural analysis on intertextuality and history

  • Discourse: Foucaultian analysis on power/knowledge


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Ricoeur’s Time, Narrative & History

  • Paul Ricoeur’s metaphor and narrative in hermeneutic understanding

    • Metaphor is semantic innovation “in producing a new semantic pertinence by means of an impertinent attribution.” (1983, p. ix)

    • Narrative is another semantic innovation in “inventing another work of synthesis – a plot”


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Ricoeur’s Time, Narrative & History

  • Ricoeur’s hypothesis of Time and Narrative ‘My basic hypothesis (is) that between the activity of narrating a story and the temporal character of human experience there exists a correlation that is not merely accidental but that presents a transcultural form of necessity. To put it another way, time becomes human to the extent that it is articulated through a narrative mode, and narrative attains its full meaning when it becomes a conditions of temporal existence.” (Ricoeur, 1984, p. 52)


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Ricoeur’s Time, Narrative & History

  • Ricoer’s History as narrative

    • Historical event: “Historical events derive their historical status not only from their articulation in singular statements, but also from the position of these singular statements in configurations of certain sort which properly constitute a narrative.” (1981, p. 276)

    • Historical explanation: It is an act of emplotment, that is, “to interpolate” the historical events to be explained into “a type of discourse which already has a narrative form.” (p.276)


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1950s, Lifeboat on high tide of the cold war

The aftermaths of the 1966 & 67 riots and the dominance of the subject political culture in the emerging industrial colony

1973, Admission of PRC into UN

The emergence of the 1997 issue and the discourse of constitution of representative government

The preparation of HK citizens for the 1997 handover by a retreating colonial government

Aggressive project of democratization by the last Governor

Cold-war rhetoric in Civics (1948-56)

Emphasis on law and order and responsibility of citizens in E.P.A. syllabuses in the 1960s

Replacement of the imagery of colony with the concept of community in the 1970s’ EPA syllabus

The introduction of the ideas of liberal democracy and political inputs in the 1980s’ syllabuses

The publication of the 1985 version of Civic Ed Guidance

The publication of the 1995 version of Civic Ed Guidance

Narrative in HK citizenship education


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Ricoeur’s Time, Narrative & History

  • Ricoer’s History as narrative

    • Plot: “What is a plot? The phenomenology of the act of following a story. …To follow a story is to understand the successive actions, thoughts and feelings as displaying a particular directedness. …We must follow the story to its conclusion. So rather than being predictable, a conclusion must be acceptable. Looking back from the conclusion towards the episodes which lead up to it, we must be able to say that this end required those events and that chain of action.” (p.277)

    • History: “History could then be explicitly treated as a ‘literary artifact’, and the writing of history began to be reinterpreted according to categories which were variously call ‘semiotic’ ‘symbolic’ and ‘poetic’.” (p. 290)


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrative as a universal meta-code of humanity & culture: "To raise the question of the nature of narrative is to invite reflection on the very nature of culture and, possibly, even on the nature humanity itself. So natural is the impulse to narrate, so inevitable is the form of narrative for any report on the way things really happened, that narrativity could appear problematical only in a culture in which it was absent. …This suggests that far from being one code among many that a culture may utilize for endowing experience with meaning, narrative is a meta-code, a human universal on the basis of which transcultural messages about the nature of a shared reality can be transmitted." (White, 1987, p.1)


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Classification of historical data

    • Primitive elements: traces of the past

    • Non-primitive elements:

      • Textual records, archives, relics

      • Annals

      • Chronicle

      • Historical discourse

    • Distinction between syntax of the past (the facts/the statements/the chronicle) and semantics of the past(the stories/the narrative forms)


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrativity in the representation of reality

    • Three basic kind of historical representation

      • The annals

        “It consists only a list of events ordered in chronological sequence. …It possesses none of the characteristics that we normally attribute to a story: no central subject, no well marked beginning, middle, and end, no peripeteia, and no identifiable narrative voice.” (P. 5-6)

      • The chronicle

        “The chronicle.. has a central subject – the life of an individual, town, or region; some great undertaking, such as a war or crusade; or some institution, such as a monarchy, episcopacy, or monastery,” (P. 16), an authority.

      • The historical narrative


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrativity in the representation of reality

    • Features of narrativity

      • Sequence of events

      • Central subject:

        • The legal subject (the state)

        • The geographical subject

        • The social subject/system

      • Plot

        • The plot is “a structure of relationships by which the events contained in the account are endowed with a meaning by being identified as parts of an integrated whole” (White, 1987, p.9)


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrativity in the representation of reality

    • Features of narrativity

      • Explanation by emplotment: "Providing the 'meaning' of a story by identifying the kind of story that has been told is call explanation by emplotemnt. If, in the course of narrating his story, the historian provides it with the plot structure of a Tragedy, he has 'explained' it in one way; if he has structured it as a Comedy, he has 'explained' it in another way. Emplotment is the way by which a sequence of events fashioned into a story is gradually revealed to be a story of a particular kind. ….I identify at least four different modes of emplotment: Romance, Tragedy, Comedy, and Satire." (White, 1973, p.7)


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrativity in the representation of reality

    • Features of narrativity

      • Closure

        • Moral meaning

        • “A proper historical narrative … achieves narrative fullness by explicitly invoking the idea of a social system to serve as a fixed reference point by which the flow of ephemeral events can be endowed with specifically moral meaning. … (Hence), the chronicle must approach the form of an allegory, moral or analogical as the case may be, in order to achieve both narrativity and historicality.” (p. 22)

        • Moralistic ending

      • Authority of reality


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Hyden White’s Narrative Discourse & Historical Representation

  • Narrativity in the representation of reality

    • Features of narrativity

      • Authority of reality: In a constructing narrative, a historian usually implies "a desire on his part to represent an authority whose legitimacy hinged upon the establishment of 'facts' of specifically historical orders." (p. 19)


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge: The Discursive Formation

  • From text and narrative to discourse:

    • The task of hermeneutics is to ‘describes the phenomenon from the inside’ (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p.79), that is, to retrieves the meanings embedded in the text, and to bridge the distanciation between the ‘being-in- the-world’ of the author and reader

    • The task of narrative study is to reveal 'forms', 'plots', 'meanings', and narratives that historians have imposed upon 'historical data in their writings historical storylines. That is to reveal 'the content of the form' of historians' representations.


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge: The Discursive Formation

  • From text and narrative to discourse:

    • Archaeology in Foucaultian sense look into how discourses are formed in the history of ideas and/or truth. He contends that in studying the successions of schools of thought in the history of ideas, one should look beyond the internal meanings of the school of thought under study but analyze the discursive rules in operations in a given hsitorical and socio-cultural context.

      “Foucault, the archaeologist looks from outside, reject the appeal to meaning. He contends that viewed with external neutrality, the discursive practices themselves provide a meaningless space of rule-governed transformations in which statements, subjects, objects, concepts and so forth are taken by those involved to be meaningful.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 79)


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Foucault’s Essential Books Published in French Formation

  • 1961 Madness and Civilization

  • 1962 Mental Illness and Psychology

  • 1963 The Birth of Clinic: An Archaeology of

    Medical Perception.

  • 1966 The Order of Things:

    An Archaeology of Human Sciences

  • 1969 The Archaeology of Knowledge

  • 1971 Nietzsche, Genealogy, History

  • 1975 Discipline and Punish

  • 1976 The History of Sexuality vol. 1

  • 1984 The Use of Pleasure:

    The History of Sexuality vol. 2

  • 1984 The Care of the Self :

    The History of Sexuality vol. 3


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge: The Discursive Formation

  • Statements, Discourse and Episteme

    • Statement “The statement is not the same kind of unit as the sentence, the proposition, or the speech act…The statements is not …a structure (i.e. a group of relations between variable elements...).; it is a function of existence that properly belong to signs and on the basis of which one may then decide, through analysis or intuition, whether or not they ‘make sense’, according to what rule they follow one another or are juxtaposed, of what they are the sign, and what sort of act is carried out by their formulation (oral or written).” (Foucault, 1972, p. 86-87)

      e.g. A is insane.

      B is sick.

      C is a Band-5 and MIG-II student

      D failed the benchmarking assessment


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge : The Discursive Formation

  • Statements, Discourse and Episteme

    • A discourse “is the totality of all effectiveness statements (whether spoken or written). ... Description of discourse is in opposition to the history of thought. There…a system of thought can be reconstituted only on the basis of a definite discursive totality. …The analysis of thought is always allegorical in relation to the discourse that it employs. Its question is unfailingly: what is being said in what was said? …what is this specific existence that emerges from what is said and nowhere else?” (Foucault, 1972, p. 27-28)

      e.g. Modern medicine as a discourse

      Psychiatry as a discourse

      Education of performativity as a discourse


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge : The Discursive Formation

  • The Formation of Object

    • Mapping the surface of the emergence of the object

    • Describing the authorities of delimitation

    • Analyzing the grids of specification

  • The Formation of Enunciative Modality/Field

    • Identifying who is speaking, who is accorded the right to use this sort of language, who is qualified to do so.

    • Describing the institutional sites from which the discourse is made and from which the discourse derives its legitimate source and point of application

    • Analyzing the position of the subject, in which s/he occupies in relation to the various domains and groups of objects


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge : The Discursive Formation

  • The Formation of Concepts: the formation of the organization of the field of statements where a family of concepts appeared and circulated

    • Identifying the forms of succession, e.g.

      • Orderings of enunciative series

      • Types of dependence of the statements

      • Rhetorical schemata according to which groups of statements may be combined

    • Identifying the forms of coexistence

      • Field of presence

      • Field of concomitance

      • Field of memory

    • Identifying the procedures of intervention that may be legitimately applied to statements, e.g. technique of rewriting , method of transcribing, mode of translating, means of transferring, method of systematizing


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Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge : The Discursive Formations

  • The Formation of Strategies or theoretical and thematic choice

    • Determining the points of diffraction of discourse

      • Point of incompatibility

      • Point of equivalence

      • Point of systematization

    • Analyzing the economy of the discursive constellation

    • Analyzing the other authority, e.g. functional to fields of non-discursive practice, observing the rules and processes of appropriation of discourse


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The Methodological shortcomings of Foucault’s Archaeology Formations

  • The problem of the explanatory power of discursive formation thesis

    • Descriptive nature of the discursive formation thesis:

      ‘As a fully consistent phenomenologist, bracketing reference and sense, he (Foucault) need only describe the changing discursive practices, with their apparent referent and apparent sense, that emerge with these practices. …(I)t should not claim serious meaning and explanatory power for itself. …(I)t would have to be …nothing more than “a pure description of the facts of discourse”.’ (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 83)


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The Methodological shortcomings of Foucault’s Archaeology Formations

  • The problem of the explanatory power of discursive formation thesis

    • Prescriptive nature of the discursive formation thesis:

      ‘Far from accepting a descriptive theory, he (Foucault seems to want a prescriptive one: “The analysis of statements and discursive formation … wishes to determine the principle according to which only signifying groups that were enunciated could appear. It sets out to establish a law of rarity.” (AK 118, our italics) At times he seems to go so far as to demand not merely conditions of possibility but total determination: “One must show why [a specific statement] could not have been other than it was.” (CE 19, our italics)’ (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 84)


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The Methodological shortcomings of Foucault’s Archaeology Formations

  • The problem of the meaning and seriousness in discursive formation

    • Nihilistic nature of the discursive formation thesis:

      “We can see that the truth of the past horizon was, like all truth, a mere epochal construction. We are thus led to abandon a certain naïve conception of truth as the correspondence of a theory to the way things are in themselves, and a naïve conception of the disciplines as engaged in the gradual approximation to this truth. The result is a kind of nihilism which emphasizes the role of interpretation.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 87)


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The Methodological shortcomings of Foucault’s Archaeology Formations

  • The problem of the meaning and seriousness in discursive formation

    • Historical and critical nature of the discursive formation thesis:

      “Foucault the archaeologist looks on, as a detached metaphenomenologist, at the historical Foucault who can’t, if he thinks about human beings in a serious way, help thinking in terms of meaning and truth claims governed by the latest discursive formation. …The archaeologist has to share the everyday context of the discourse he studies in order to practice his discipline. …Furthermore, it is not sufficient for the archaeologist to have an understanding of everyday discourse. Unless he understands the issues that concern the thinkers he studies, he will be unable to distinguish when two different utterances are the same serious speech act and when two identical utterance are different serious speech acts.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 87-88)


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • The methodological linkage between archaeology and genealogy of discourse

    • Archaeology as method and genealogy as goal:

      “F: What I mean by archaeology is a methodological framework for my analysis. What I mean by genealogy is both the reason and the target of analyzing those discourses as events, and what I am trying to show is how those discursive events have determined in certain way what constitutes our present and what constitutes ourselves either our knowledge, our practices, our type of rationality, our relationship to ourselves or to others … the genealogy is the finality of the analysis, and the archaeology is the mental and methodological framework.

      MJ: Just to make sure that your answer was understood, you never stopped doing archaeology.

      F: No, no, no, …no, no, I never stopped doing archaeology. I never stopped doing genealogy. Genealogy defines the target and the finality of the work and archaeology indicates the field with which I deal in order to make a genealogy.” (Foucault, 1972; Quoted in Mahon, 1992, p.105 & 212)


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • The methodological linkage between archaeology and genealogy of discourse

    • Archaeology and genealogy as different levels interpretation:

      • Archaeological level of interpretation: ”Whether we are analyzing propositions physics or phrenology, we substitute for their internal intelligibility a different intelligibility, namely their place within the discursive formation. This is the task of archaeology …Archaeology is always a technique that can free us from a residual belief in our direct access to objects; in each case the ‘tyranny of the referent’ has to be overcome.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 117)

      • Genealogical level of interpretation: “When we add genealogy, however, a third level of intelligibility and differentiation is introduced. After archaeology does its job, the genealogist can ask about the historical and political roles that these science play.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 117, my italic)


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • The methodological linkage between archaeology and genealogy of discourse

    • Genealogy as study of Episteme and Entstehung:

      • Episteme as descents of discourses

      • Entstehung

        • ‘Entstehung designates emergence, the moment of arising.” (Foucault, 1984, p.83)

        • Emergence is always produced through a particular stage of forces. The analysis of the Entstehung must delineate this interaction, the struggle these forces wage against each other or against adverse circumstances, and the attempt to avoid degeneration and regain strength by dividing these forces against themselves.” (p.83-84)


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • Genealogy, discourse and power/knowledge

    • Power: The constituting base of discursive formation and practice:

      ‘Critical (archaeological) and genealogical descriptions are to alternate, support and complete each other. The critical side of the analysis deals with the system’s enveloping discourse; attempting to mark out and distinguish the principles of ordering, exclusion and rarity in discourse. … The genealogical side of analysis, by way of contrast, deals with series of effective formation of discourse: it attempt to grasp it in its power of affirmation, by which I do not mean a power opposed to that of negation, but the power of constituting a domain of objects, in relation to which one can affirm or deny true and false” (Foucault, 1972, p. 234, my italic)

      ‘Discourse can be both an instrument and an effect of power… Discourse transmits and produces power; it reinforces it. …In like manner, silence and secrecy are a shelter for power, anchoring its prohibitions.’ (Foucault, 1978, 101, my italic)


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • Genealogy, discourse and power/knowledge

    • The concept of ‘apparatus’ and the introduction of ‘non-discursive practices’ into the thesis:

      • Foucault defines apparatus as ‘strategies of relations of forces supporting types of knowledge and inversely.’ (quoted in Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 121)

      • Apparatus may include ‘discourse, institutions, architectural arrangements, regulations, laws, administrative measures, scientific statements, philosophic propositions, morality, philanthropy, etc.’ (quoted in Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 121) Hence, by introducing the concepts of apparatus into the genealogical analysis of discourse, Foucault has expanded the analytical horizon from discursive practices found in archaeology to non-discursive practices.


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • Genealogy, discourse and power/knowledge

    • The concept of power/knowledge

      ‘It is in discourse that power and knowledge are joined together’ (Foucault, 1978, p. 100) and therefore "discourse is both instrument and effect of power." (1978, p. 101), Accordingly it is through discourse that constitutes what Foucault conceptualized the power/knowledge.


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Foucault’s Genealogy of Power/Knowledge Formations

  • The concept of power/knowledge

    “We should admit … that power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field o knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations. These power/knowledge relations are to be analyzed, therefore, not on the basis of a subject of knowledge who is or is not free in relation to the power system, but, on the contrary, the subject who knows, the objects to be known and the modalities of knowledge must be regarded as so many effects of these fundamental implications of power/knowledge and their historical transformations. In short, it is not the activities of the subject of knowledge that produces a corpus of knowledge, useful or resistant to power, but power/knowledge, the processes and struggles that traverse it and of which it is made up, that determines the forms and possible domains of knowledge. (Foucault, 1977, p. 28)


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Genealogy of Subject and Power Formations

  • Genealogy of body: Foucault underlines that one of the essential domains of descent is the body because "descent attaches itself to the body." (Foucault, 1984, p. 83) "Genealogy, as an analysis of descent, is thus situated within the articulation of the body and history. Its task is to expose a body totally imprinted by history and the process of history's destruction of the body." (Foucault, 1984, p. 83)


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Genealogy of Subject and Power Formations

  • To Foucault, to revealing "the process of history's destruction of the body" is practically means to trace how history "transform human being into subjects" (Foucault, 1982, p. 208) According to Foucault, "The are two meanings of the word subject: (i) subject to someone else by control and dependence, and (ii) tied to his own identity by a conscience or self-knowledge." (Foucault, 1982, p. 212)


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Genealogy of Subject and Power Formations

  • More specifically, Foucault further categorize subject into (Foucault, 1982, p. 212)

    • Domination: It refers to "subject to someone else by control" such as ethnic, social, and religious subjection.

    • Exploitation: It refers to subject to someone else by constituting dependence, especially economic dependence, which "separate(s) individuals from what they produce."

    • Subjection: It refers to submission of subjectivity to forms of conscience or authority, which constitute in configurations of power/knowledge and discourse.


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Genealogy of Docile Body and FormationsDisciplinary Power

  • Power on body: Disciplinary power and the technology of power in Discipline and Punish (1977)

  • The project of docility: “In every society, the body was in the grip of very strict power, which imposed on it constraints, prohibition or obligations.” “Docility …joins the analyzable body (intelligible body) with the manipulatable body (useful body).” (Foucault, 1977, p. 136)

  • Techniques of disciplinary power: They are “method, which made possible the meticulous control of the operations of body, which assured the constant subjection of its forces and imposed upon then a relation of docility-utility.” And they “might be called disciplines.” (Foucault, 1977, p. 137)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and FormationsDisciplinary Power

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body": Foucault outlines a lists of techniques through which body can be made docile and useful in power contexts such as prison, barrack, and schools.

    • The art of distributions

      • The enclosure: It is a confined area, in which non-members are strictly prohibited to entreed. As for the inmates, such as in prisoners, soldiers, and students, they are also not allow leave or enter freely

      • The Principle of elementary partitioning: Partition of physical contexts into cells, barracks and classrooms


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body":

    • The art of distributions

      • Codification of functional sites: Definition of site within the contexts into front region and back region

      • The art of ranking: All the techniques of the art of distributions are not applied to members equally. The degree of discretion and freedom are distributed in hierarchical orders of different categories and strata the inmates are classified.


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body":

    • The control of activity: All the activities to some extent including actions and behaviors are meticulously controlled by means of

      • Time tabling

      • Temporal elaboration of act

      • Correlation of the body and the gesture into the “best” condition

      • Body-object articulation

      • Exhaustive use: time-tabling in negative sense, i.e. no idleness and waste of time; and positive sense, i.e. efficiency and quality


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body":

    • The organization of geneses: By geneses it refers to the categorizations of the inmates

      • Division of duration into isolated but successive segments, such as students in primary 1, 2, ….; Secondary 1, 2, …

      • Organization of segments according to an analytical plan of advancement, e.g. from simple to complexity, for novice to mastery, from primary, secondary to tertiary, from freshman to senior, etc.

      • Finalization of each segment with examination

      • Seriation of series…


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body":

    • Composition of forces

      • Disciplined individual bodies can be configurated into body-regiments,

      • Each disciplined bodies within a regiment must also combine to form a composite time in such a way that the maximum quantity of forces

      • Precise system of commands to direct this composition of forces of disciplined bodies

      • Constitution of a mechanism of maximum efficiency


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power on "manipulatable and useful body":

    • “To sum up, it might be said that discipline creates out of the bodies it controls four types of individuality: …it is cellular (by the play of spatial distribution), it is organic (by the coding of activities), it is genetic (by the accumulation of time), it is combinatory (by the composition of forces).” (Foucault, 1977, p.167)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • “The chief function of disciplinary power is to ‘train’. …Instead of bending all its subjects into a single uniform mass, it separates, analyses, differentiates, carries its procedures of decomposition to the point of necessary and sufficient single units. It ‘trains’ the moving, confused, useless multitude of bodies and forces into a multiplicity of individual elements ─ small, separate cells, organic autonomies, genetic identities and continuities, combinatory segments. Discipline ‘makes’ individuals.” (Foucault, 1977, p.170)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • “The success of disciplinary power derives …from the use of simple instruments: (1) hierarchical observation; (2) normalizing judgement and their combination in a procedure that is specific to it, (3) examination.” (Foucault, 1977, p.170; my numbering)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • Hierarchical observation:

      • Observation and Gaze can serve as instrument of asserting disciplinary power in the following ways:

        • to scrutinize the induce effect of disciplinary power

        • to put the recipients of discipline power totally visible

      • Effective disciplinary gaze needs relays. In order to guarantee an interrupted network of observation a hierarchy of observation or a pyramid of gaze is required


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • Normalizing judgment

      • Disciplinary power is exercise through a micro-penalty mechanism of time, activity, behavior, speech, body, sexuality, etc.

      • Punishments are imposed not only on infraction of rule but also on non-observance and inability to carry out expected task, in other words, penalty is not only restrictive but also prescriptive.

      • Disciplinary punishment is corrective in nature. It usually takes the form of exercise, i.e. intensified, repeated, multiple forms of training


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • Normalizing judgment

      • Disciplinary penalty is built upon a polar judgement of good and evil, positive and negative, right and wrong, etc. These judgements should also be quantified into an accounting system of good and bad, merit and faults

      • Subjects under the disciplinary power can be ranked or graded in accordance with their degree of conformity or compliance to the predetermined norms


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and training on analyzable body and intelligible body

    • Examination: It is a combination of the techniques of both hierarchical observation and normalizing judgment. More specifically, it is a process of subjection of those who are supposed to be the learning subjects and a process of the objectification of those learning subjects who have been subjected. This process of subjection and objectification is operated through the following mechanism


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and the Panopticon

    • Bentham's Panopticon is the architectural figure ….. We know the principle on which is was based: at the periphery, an annular building; at the centre, a tower; this tower is pierced with wide windows that open onto the inner side of the ring; peripheric building is divided into cells, each of which extends the whole width of the building; they have two windows, one on the inside, corresponding to the windows of the tower; the other, on the outside, allows the light to cross the cell from one end to the other. All that is needed, then is to place a supervisor in the central tower and to shut up in each cell a madman, a patient, a condemned man a worker or a schoolboys. By the effect of blacklighting, one can observe from the tower, standing out precisely against the light, the small captive showers in the cells of the periphery. …. Visibility is a trap." (Foucault, 1977, p. 200)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and the Panopticon

    • The major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power. So to arrange things that the surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action; that the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnecessary; that is architectural apparatus should be a machine for creating and sustaining a power relation independent of the person who exercises it; in short, that the inmate should be caught up in a power situation of which they are themselves the bearers.” (, p. 201)


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Genealogy of Docile Body and Disciplinary Power Formations

  • Disciplinary power and the Panopticon

    • The Panopticon has “laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible: the inmate will constantly have before his eyes the tall outline of the central tower from which he is spied upon. Unverifiable: the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at at any one moment; but must be sure that he may always be so.” (, p.201)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The institutionalization of biopower

    • "Starting in the seventeenth century, this power over life involved in two basic forms:

      • One of these poles …centered on the body as a machine: its disciplining, the optimization of its capabilities, the extortion of its forces, the parallel increase of itsusefulness and its docility, its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls, all this was ensured by the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines: an anatomo-politics of the human body.


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The institutionalization of biopower

    • "Starting in the seventeenth century, this power over life involved in two basic forms:

      • The second, somewhat later, focused on the species body, the body imbued with the mechanics of life and serving as the basis of the biological processes: propagation, birth and mortality, the level of health, life expectancy and longevity, with all the conditions that cab cause these to vary. Their supervision was effected through an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population." (Foucault, 1978, p.139)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The institutionalization of biopower

    • "During the classical period (i.e. 17th century)…there was the emergence in the field of political practices and economic observation, of the problems of birthrate, longevity, public health, housing, and migration. Hence, there was an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for subjugation of bodies and the control of populations, marking the beginning of an ear of 'biopower'". (Foucault, 1978, p. 140)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The institutionalization of biopower

    • The concept of biopower: "Power would no longer be dealing simply with legal subjects over whom the ultimate domination was death, but with living beings, and the mastery it would be able to exercise over them would have to be applied at the level of life itself; it was the taking charge of life, more than the threat of death, that gave power its access even to the body. If one can apply the term bio-history to the pressure through which the movement of life and the processes of history interfere with one another, one would have to speak of bio-power to designate what brought life and its mechanism into the realm of explicit calculations and made knowledge/power an agent of transformation of human life." (Foucault, 1978, p. 142-433, original italic)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The constitution of sexuality

    • Sex become a political issue and subject to power: It is within the historical context of the institutionalization of biopower, it "enable us to understand the importance assumed by sex as a political issue." (Foucault, 1978, p.145) That is because "sex was a means of access both to life of the body and the life of the species." (Foucault, 1978, p. 146) "At the juncture of the 'body' and the 'population', sex became a crucial target of a power organized around the management of life rather that the menace of death." (Foucault, 1978, p.147)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • The constitution of sexuality

    • The constitution of sexuality: "Through the themes of health, progeny, race, the future of the species, the vitality of the social body, power spoke of sexuality and to sexuality; the latter was not a mark or a symbol, it is an object and a target." (Foucault, 1978, p. 147) As a result, sexuality has gradually developed into the norm, knowledge, life, meaning, the disciplines and the regulations." (Foucault, 1978, p. 148) It is in this conjunction of power and knowledge (i.e. power/knowledge that sexuality can be understood as "the correlative of that slowly developed discursive practice which constitute the scientia sexualis." (Foucault, 1978, p.68)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power and the confessional discourse

    • “Since the Middle Ages at least, Western societies have established the confession as one of the main ritual we rely on for the production of truth, …with the resulting development of confessional techniques. …The confession became one of the West’s most highly valued techniques for producing truth. …Western man has become a confessing animal.” (Foucault, 1978, p. 58-59)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • “The confession is a ritual of discourse in which the speaking subject is also the subject of the statement; it is also a ritual that unfold within a power relationship, for one does not confess without the presence (or virtual presence) of a partner who is not simply the interlocutor but the authority who requires the confession, prescribe and appreciates it, and intervenes in order to judge, punish, forgive, console, and reconcile. …By virtue of the power structure immanent in it, the confessional discourse cannot come from above, …through the sovereign will of a master, but rather from below, as obligatory act of speech which under some imperious compulsion, break the bonds of discretion or forgetfulness. … The agency of domination does not reside in the one speak, but in the one who listens and says nothing, not in the one who knows and answers, but in the one who questions and is not supposed to know.” (Foucault, 1978, 61-62)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • The concept of pastoral power: Confessional discourse as part of the institution of Christianity, it has espoused "a very special form of power", which Foucault called "pastoral power." (Foucault, 1982, p. 214) It is made up of the following features. (Foucault, 1982, P. 214)

      • "It is a form of power whose ultimate aim is to assure individual salvation in the next world."

      • "Pastoral power is not merely a form of power which commands; it must also be prepared to sacrifice itself for the life and salvation of the flock."


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • The concept of pastoral power:

      • "It is a form of power which does not look after just the whole community, but each individual in particular, during his entire life."

      • Finally, this form of power cannot be exercised without knowing the inside of people's mind, without exploring their souls, without making them reveal their innermost secrets. It implies a knowledge of the individual himself."


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • Two aspect of pastoral power:

      • The ecclesiastical institutionalization aspect: This aspect of pastoral power, according to Foucault's analysis, "has ceased or at least lost its vitality since the eighteenth century." (Foucault, 1982, p. 214)

      • The functional aspect: Foucault contends that the function of pastoral power, has spread and multiplied outside the ecclesiastical institution." Foucault underlines that it is the state, which has become "a new form of pastoral power." (Foucault, 1982, p. 215)


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • Institutionalization of pastoral power in the modern state: Since the eighteenth century, functions of pastoral power have gradually been transferred from the Church to the state. Therefore, "we can see the state as a modern matrix of indiviudalization, or a new form of pastoral power."

      • In the context of this new form of pastoral power of the state, "the word salvation takes on different meanings, health, well-being (that is, sufficient wealth, standard of living), security, protection against accident. A series of 'worldly' aims took the place of the religious aims of the traditional pastorate." (Foucault, 1982, p. 215) As in the state project of establishment of mass education for all its future citizens, it can be construed as a new form of salvation to literacy, civil army and productive labor force.


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • Institutionalization of pastoral power in the modern state:

      • "Concurrently the officials of pastoral power increased. Some times this form of power was exerted by state apparatus or, in any case, by a public institution such as the police." (Foucault, 1982, p. 215) In the case of education, it is evidenced in the development of public schooling systems and implementation of compulsory education policy in European countries in the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries.


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Genealogy of Sexuality, Biopower and Pastoral Power Formations

  • Pastoral power & the confessional discourse

    • Institutionalization of pastoral power in the modern state:

      • "Finally, the multiplication of the aims and agents of pastoral power focused the development of knowledge of man around two roles: one, globalizing and quantitative, concerning the population; the other, analytical, concerning the individual." (Foucault, 1982, p. 215) The establishment of the knowledge and field of study of education since the eighteenth century signified the emergence and development of the knowledge/power (i.e. discourse) around the pastoral power of education. Furthermore, the field of education has accordingly differentiated, as Foucault indicated, into areas of studies focusing on knowledge globalizing aspect of pastoral power, such as education policy and planning, economics of education, etc.; and areas of studies emphasizing the analytical and individualizing aspect of pastoral power, such as psychology of education, curriculum and instruction, etc.


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END Formations

Historical Method of Marco-social Phenomena:Deconstructionist Perspective


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1911 Oct 10: Successful army revolt in Wuchang and the declaration of the establishment of the Republic of China

1911 Nov: KwangTung proclaimed to join the Republic

1911 November: Governor Frederick Lugard issued proclamation of emergency power to the colony and the Legco passed the bill to give magistrates the power to impose the penalty of up to 24 lashes with a cat-o’-nine-tails for wide range of offense.

1912: attempted assassination of Sir Henry May during his proceeding to be sworn in as Governor of HK

1919: May-Fourth Movement

1925: Canton-Hong Kong Strike and Boycott

Kotewall wrote in 1925 characterized HK teachers as seditionistsadocating of Bolshevism and nationalism his investigation of