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Historical Method of Marco-social Phenomena: Deconstructionist Perspective. EDM 6003 Historical-Comparative Method in Educational Research . The Roadmap of the Deconstructionist Approach. Hermeneutics: Post-structural analysis on text
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Historical-Comparative Method in Educational Research
‘Hermeneutics is a discipline that has been primarily concerned with the elucidation of rules for the interpretation of texts.” (Thompson, 1981, p.36)
4.Critical reading of the (reader’s) self-understanding or the self unfolded in front of the text
The aftermaths of the 1966 & 67 riots and the dominance of the subject political culture in the emerging industrial colony
1973, Admission of PRC into UN
The emergence of the 1997 issue and the discourse of constitution of representative government
The preparation of HK citizens for the 1997 handover by a retreating colonial government
Aggressive project of democratization by the last Governor
Cold-war rhetoric in Civics (1948-56)
Emphasis on law and order and responsibility of citizens in E.P.A. syllabuses in the 1960s
Replacement of the imagery of colony with the concept of community in the 1970s’ EPA syllabus
The introduction of the ideas of liberal democracy and political inputs in the 1980s’ syllabuses
The publication of the 1985 version of Civic Ed Guidance
The publication of the 1995 version of Civic Ed GuidanceNarrative in HK citizenship education
“It consists only a list of events ordered in chronological sequence. …It possesses none of the characteristics that we normally attribute to a story: no central subject, no well marked beginning, middle, and end, no peripeteia, and no identifiable narrative voice.” (P. 5-6)
“The chronicle.. has a central subject – the life of an individual, town, or region; some great undertaking, such as a war or crusade; or some institution, such as a monarchy, episcopacy, or monastery,” (P. 16), an authority.
“Foucault, the archaeologist looks from outside, reject the appeal to meaning. He contends that viewed with external neutrality, the discursive practices themselves provide a meaningless space of rule-governed transformations in which statements, subjects, objects, concepts and so forth are taken by those involved to be meaningful.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982, p. 79)
An Archaeology of Human Sciences
The History of Sexuality vol. 2
The History of Sexuality vol. 3
e.g. A is insane.
B is sick.
C is a Band-5 and MIG-II student
D failed the benchmarking assessment
e.g. Modern medicine as a discourse
Psychiatry as a discourse
Education of performativity as a discourse
‘As a fully consistent phenomenologist, bracketing reference and sense, he (Foucault) need only describe the changing discursive practices, with their apparent referent and apparent sense, that emerge with these practices. …(I)t should not claim serious meaning and explanatory power for itself. …(I)t would have to be …nothing more than “a pure description of the facts of discourse”.’ (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 83)
‘Far from accepting a descriptive theory, he (Foucault seems to want a prescriptive one: “The analysis of statements and discursive formation … wishes to determine the principle according to which only signifying groups that were enunciated could appear. It sets out to establish a law of rarity.” (AK 118, our italics) At times he seems to go so far as to demand not merely conditions of possibility but total determination: “One must show why [a specific statement] could not have been other than it was.” (CE 19, our italics)’ (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 84)
“We can see that the truth of the past horizon was, like all truth, a mere epochal construction. We are thus led to abandon a certain naïve conception of truth as the correspondence of a theory to the way things are in themselves, and a naïve conception of the disciplines as engaged in the gradual approximation to this truth. The result is a kind of nihilism which emphasizes the role of interpretation.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 87)
“Foucault the archaeologist looks on, as a detached metaphenomenologist, at the historical Foucault who can’t, if he thinks about human beings in a serious way, help thinking in terms of meaning and truth claims governed by the latest discursive formation. …The archaeologist has to share the everyday context of the discourse he studies in order to practice his discipline. …Furthermore, it is not sufficient for the archaeologist to have an understanding of everyday discourse. Unless he understands the issues that concern the thinkers he studies, he will be unable to distinguish when two different utterances are the same serious speech act and when two identical utterance are different serious speech acts.” (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982. p. 87-88)
“F: What I mean by archaeology is a methodological framework for my analysis. What I mean by genealogy is both the reason and the target of analyzing those discourses as events, and what I am trying to show is how those discursive events have determined in certain way what constitutes our present and what constitutes ourselves either our knowledge, our practices, our type of rationality, our relationship to ourselves or to others … the genealogy is the finality of the analysis, and the archaeology is the mental and methodological framework.
MJ: Just to make sure that your answer was understood, you never stopped doing archaeology.
F: No, no, no, …no, no, I never stopped doing archaeology. I never stopped doing genealogy. Genealogy defines the target and the finality of the work and archaeology indicates the field with which I deal in order to make a genealogy.” (Foucault, 1972; Quoted in Mahon, 1992, p.105 & 212)
‘Critical (archaeological) and genealogical descriptions are to alternate, support and complete each other. The critical side of the analysis deals with the system’s enveloping discourse; attempting to mark out and distinguish the principles of ordering, exclusion and rarity in discourse. … The genealogical side of analysis, by way of contrast, deals with series of effective formation of discourse: it attempt to grasp it in its power of affirmation, by which I do not mean a power opposed to that of negation, but the power of constituting a domain of objects, in relation to which one can affirm or deny true and false” (Foucault, 1972, p. 234, my italic)
‘Discourse can be both an instrument and an effect of power… Discourse transmits and produces power; it reinforces it. …In like manner, silence and secrecy are a shelter for power, anchoring its prohibitions.’ (Foucault, 1978, 101, my italic)
‘It is in discourse that power and knowledge are joined together’ (Foucault, 1978, p. 100) and therefore "discourse is both instrument and effect of power." (1978, p. 101), Accordingly it is through discourse that constitutes what Foucault conceptualized the power/knowledge.
“We should admit … that power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field o knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations. These power/knowledge relations are to be analyzed, therefore, not on the basis of a subject of knowledge who is or is not free in relation to the power system, but, on the contrary, the subject who knows, the objects to be known and the modalities of knowledge must be regarded as so many effects of these fundamental implications of power/knowledge and their historical transformations. In short, it is not the activities of the subject of knowledge that produces a corpus of knowledge, useful or resistant to power, but power/knowledge, the processes and struggles that traverse it and of which it is made up, that determines the forms and possible domains of knowledge. (Foucault, 1977, p. 28)
Historical Method of Marco-social Phenomena:Deconstructionist Perspective
1911 Oct 10: Successful army revolt in Wuchang and the declaration of the establishment of the Republic of China
1911 Nov: KwangTung proclaimed to join the Republic
1911 November: Governor Frederick Lugard issued proclamation of emergency power to the colony and the Legco passed the bill to give magistrates the power to impose the penalty of up to 24 lashes with a cat-o’-nine-tails for wide range of offense.
1912: attempted assassination of Sir Henry May during his proceeding to be sworn in as Governor of HK
1919: May-Fourth Movement
1925: Canton-Hong Kong Strike and Boycott
Kotewall wrote in 1925 characterized HK teachers as seditionistsadocating of Bolshevism and nationalism his investigation of