trabeated construction • limited span due to stones poor tensile strength • requires a considerable amount of vertical structure
coffered ceiling oculus What building?
Sequence of Spaces Calidarium (Hot) Tepidarium (Warm) Gymnasium Frigidarium (Cold) Massage Natatio (Pool) Dressing Rooms
Basilica Ulpia large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters Rome, Trajan, 100-125 CE
Hadrian’s Villa Tivoli, 118-133 CE
canopus (pool) Hadrian’s Villa Tivoli, 118-133 CE
Serapeum (grotto) Hadrian’s Villa Tivoli, 118-133 CE
cryptoporticus Hadrian’s Villa covered corridor or passageway Tivoli, 118-133 CE
atrium • large airy room • lighted by an opening in the roof • the formal room where guests were received and clients assembled to wait for their customary morning visits to their patron • also a room for family occasions
tablinum • open on two sides • family records were stored • elite families would display the imagines—busts of famous ancestors • master of the house, the paterfamilias, would greet his many clients on their morning visits
cubiculum • on the upper story • in the interior of the house • often functioned as bedrooms • small rooms off the atrium used for private meetings, libraries, etc.
frescoes, Pompeii, before 79 CE • illusions of depth • illusions of nature • fanciful architecture & attenuated columns