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Organizing and Presenting Data. GTECH 201 Session 11. Terminology. Classes Categories for grouping data Frequency Number of observations that fall in a class (frequency is a count) Frequency Distribution A listing of all classes along with their frequencies Relative Frequency

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Presentation Transcript
terminology
Terminology
  • Classes
    • Categories for grouping data
  • Frequency
    • Number of observations that fall in a class (frequency is a count)
  • Frequency Distribution
    • A listing of all classes along with their frequencies
  • Relative Frequency
    • The ratio of the frequency of a class to the total number of observations
  • Relative Frequency Distribution
    • A listing of all classes along with their relative frequencies
  • Width/Class Interval
    • The difference between the upper and lower cut points (breaks) of a class
organizing data
Organizing Data
  • Classification Rules
    • Aim is to create categories or classes
      • First step is to compute range
      • Range = Largest Value – Smallest Value
        • Interval or Ratio Scale data only
    • Class Intervals
      • Width of Class Interval
        • Equal based on range
        • Unequal based on range
        • Quantile (Quartile or Quintile)
        • Natural
classification methods
Classification Methods
  • Natural breaks
  • Quantile
  • Manual
  • Equal interval
how to decide on a classification scheme
How to Decide(on a classification scheme)
  • Rule of thumb: 3 - 7 classes
  • Classification histogram (see later today)
graphs
Graphs
  • Line graph
  • Bar graph
  • Scatterplots
creating a line graph
Creating a Line Graph
  • The growth of the population of students at a Midwestern university is as follows
bar graphs
Bar Graphs
  • Here are data on the percent of females among people earning doctoral degrees in 1990, in several different fields of study
scatter plots
Scatter Plots
  • Graph bi-variate data when both variables are measured in an interval/ratio or ordinal scale
  • Units for one variable are marked on the horizontal axis
  • Independent variable should always go on the horizontal, x axis
scatterplots
Scatterplots
  • Survey of 3368 people asking them to estimate number of calories in common foods.
example
Example
  • A city planner collected data on the number of school age children in each of 30 families.
  • Construct a grouped data table using classes based on a single value
computing frequency
Computing Frequency
  • There are three ways you can create classes
    • a < but not equal to b

b < but not equal to c

    • a – b, c – d, e - f
    • single value grouping
distributions
Distributions
  • Histograms
    • Difference between histograms and bar graphs
    • Bars in a histogram are always vertical
    • Base scale is marked off in equal units; there is no base scale in a bar graph
    • Width of bars in a histogram have meaning
    • Bars in a histogram touch each other
constructing a histogram
Constructing a Histogram
  • Histogram – height of bar equal to frequency of class represented
  • Bar extends from lowest value to highest value of the class
frequency polygons
Frequency Polygons
  • Similar to a histogram
  • Midpoint of the class is indicated
  • Points connected by straight lines
  • Cumulative frequency polygon, ogive