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Long Term Network Scenarios based on OBS/OPS. 13 Partners : - Telecom Italia - Alcatel SEL AG - Alcatel CIT - Lucent Technologies Nederland BV - Marconi Communications ONDATA GmbH - Siemens. - Telefonica - FhG-HHI - IBBT - UCL - IKR - University of Stuttgart - UPC - ICCS.

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long term network scenarios based on obs ops

Long Term Network Scenarios based on OBS/OPS

  • 13 Partners:

- Telecom Italia

- Alcatel SEL AG

- Alcatel CIT

- Lucent Technologies Nederland BV

- Marconi Communications ONDATA GmbH

- Siemens

  • - Telefonica

- FhG-HHI

- IBBT

- UCL

- IKR - University of Stuttgart

- UPC

- ICCS

Workpackage 3

Advanced Burst/Packet Switching [draft v1]

Gert Eilenberger

agenda
Agenda

The presentation is structured in two parts:

  • WP3 Objectives / Overview / Results
  • WP3 / 6 / 7 joint activities on optical burst switching nodes
targeted network architectures
Targeted Network Architectures

PhoneHome

PhoneHome

Music

Gaming

Music

Gaming

Applications

Applications

SmartBiz

SmartBiz

Management

Management

Voice

@Home

Voice

@Home

Video

Video

Service

Service

TV

User

User

Element

Element

Interactive

Voice

Multimedia

Services

Services

Softswitch

Control

Control

Network Capabilities

User Location

User profile

Storage

Resource

Broker

Multicast

VPN

L3 Packet

L3 Packet

Security

Packet Network Services

QOS

Charging

AAA

DSL/FTTU

Broadcast

L2 Packet / Optical

L2 Packet / Optical

GigE / SAN

SAN/NAS

Optical Network Services

G-MPLS

Ethernet

GRID

LL

Core

Core

Metro

Access

Access

NOBEL WP3

motivation for burst packet switching
Motivation for Burst/Packet Switching
  • Goal: Converged multi-service network with end-to-end QoS and multiplexing gain on network level

Converged burst/frame

switching network

(new Layer 2 transport service)

Premium

Best effort

Quasi 2 networks

(packet switched)

same technology

stat. mux.

Overprovisioning to get

Best effort

Premium

unused

premium

quality

premium

Isolated best effort network

Isolated premium network

(packet)

Status quo:

2 networks

2 technologies

(circuit/packet)

Premium

Best effort

Isolated premium network

Isolated best effort network

(pure TDM)

motivation for burst packet switching 2
Motivation for Burst/Packet Switching (2)
  • Architecture options

MSN

Pure IP

IP/OXC

IP/DXC

Data services

TDM services

Edge Routers

Edge Routers

Edge Routers

Edge Routers

IP

router

IP

router

Burstification

unit

Burst/Frame Switch

(service agnostic)

Optical Cross Connect

Core Router

SDH/SONET Cross Connect

 Scalability

 QoS

 Costs

 Integrated CP

 Scalability

 QoS

 Costs

 Flexibility

 QoS

 Opt. technology

 Flexibility

 Multi-layer control

extended long term scenario
Extended long-term scenario

The new L2 network service with its hybrid circuit/burst/packet switching capabilities will be fully integrated into the GMPLS control plane (full vertical integration)

wp3 objectives
WP3 Objectives
  • Network and node architectures for high throughput optical burst/packet core and metro networks
  • Evolution from wavelength (circuit) switched to burst/packet switched optical networks: exploit improved statistical multiplexing
  • Exploit transparent opt. wavelength/burst/packet switching to reduce excessive electronic processing for reduced overall cost
  • Optimal balance between optical and electronic technologies in terms of performance and cost
  • NovelCP and MP functions adapted for optical burst/packet networks (performance monitoring, protection and restoration).
  • End-to-End QoS support in opt. burst/packet layer (reservation, allocation, signalling, signal regeneration etc.)
  • Possible extensions and/or evolution of standards
wp3 key achievements
WP3 Key Achievements
  • Data Plane: Definition of requirements and traffic profiles for burst/packet networks and nodes
  • Data Plane: Various solutions for burst, packet and hybrid network architectures (dimensioning, performance)
  • Control Plane: Concepts on architectures and functions specific for burst/packet networks (routing, QoS, GMPLS)
  • Requirements and assessment of technologies for optical and opto-electronic burst/packet switching solutions
  • Evolution trends
  • … contained in >770 pages of deliverables
wp3 advanced packet burst switching
WP3: Advanced Packet/Burst Switching

Deliverables

  • D4: “Requirements for burst/packet networks in core and metro supporting high quality broadband services over IP” (M6) 
  • D16: “Preliminary definition of burst/packet network and node architectures and solutions” (M14) 
  • D23: “Definition of hybrid opto-electronic burst/packet switching node structures and related management functions” (M20) 
  • D32: “Preliminary report on feasibility studies on opto-electronic burst/packet switching nodes” (M24) 
wp3 migration scenarios
WP3 Migration Scenarios

BS over dyn. l

WR-OBS APSON ORION G.709 FS

OBS/OPS

Static l

Dyn. l

time

Field

deployment

2015

Product

status

Research

lab

status

2010

2005

“From semi-static to dynamically reconfigurable optical networks”

technology

apson adaptive path switched on
APSON: Adaptive Path Switched ON
  • Migration concept: via APSON to OBS/OPS networks

New mechanism to support QoS:

Just-the-Arrival-Time (JAT) reservation scheme

g 709 frame switching concept
G.709 Frame Switching Concept
  • Aggregation of client packets into equally sized containers: G.709 Frames
    • Frame Aggregation Unit at network ingress and egress.
  • Switching of each individual G.709 frame.
    • Connection less forwarding.
  • Connection oriented bandwidth reservation and labeling.
  • Continuous G.709 OTUx connections on transmission links.
core network dimensioning

3

1000 DSL users

Installed

access rates

on 1GBit/s

1

concentrator link

2.5

DSL

0.8

Eth 10

Overdimensioning

Eth 100

large web server,

2

LAN access

0.6

data center

to WAN,

Bandwidth efficiency

1000 users

0.4

1.5

super computers

0.2

talking to

each other

1

100MBit/s

1GBit/s

10GBit/s

100GBit/s

0

0

2

4

10

10

10

Mean bandwidth on core link

Aggregation factor

Core Network Dimensioning

Statistical Multiplexing in Core Networks

  • Aim: Reliable bandwidth estimation in packet based networks
    • Dimensioning rules for core links
  • Guidelines for the activity
    • Use knowledge of installed base andmeasurement of core link occupation
      • Typical provider knowledge
    • Avoid assumptions on user behavior and application mix.
      • Not predictable, outdated before consolidation
  • Expected result
    • Modified network dimensioning rules
      • independent of user behaviour
      • exploiting statistical multiplexing
virtual topology design for obs ops
Virtual Topology Design for OBS/OPS
  • Motivations for virtual topologies in OBS/OPS
    • Introduction scenario for OBS/OPS into wavelength-switched networks
    • Cost-optimal network design: reduce number of burst-switched interfaces by optical bypassing
    • Exploit lightpaths services for resilience and capacity adaptation
  • Combination of burst-switched and wavelength-switched networksin client-server hybrid optical network
  • But: dense virtual topologies also reduce statistical multiplexing gain

 Integrative network design needed including effective contention resolution

optical burst transport networks obtn
Optical Burst Transport Networks (OBTN)

OBTN Components

  • Use optical bypassing where possible
  • Allow constraint alternate routing
  • Assign shared overflow capacityfor alternate routes to improve statistical multiplexing(capacity share is defined by b)
  • Apply effective contention resolutionin nodes to achieve high QoS

Summary

  • Reduction in burst-switched interfaces compared to OBS
  • Only small penalty in network resource efficiency
  • Overall high QoS

Burst-switched trunk ports

Comparison for COST CN network at 10-5 burst loss

orion combining packets and circuits
ORION: Combining Packets and Circuits
  • ORION functionality
  • ORION node architecture
dimensioning of the two way reservation scheme for obs networks ucl
Dimensioning of the two way reservation scheme for OBS networks (UCL)
  • Two way reservation scheme was introduced to avoid buffering in the core
  • OBS allows wavelength reuse (Reuse Factor RUF)
  • Network performance determined by RUF and possible utilization
  • Round-trip time tRTT and edge delay (for burstification) limit utilization
  • Example: with 10 ms edge delay, the network diameter should not exceed 1500 km
qos provisioning in obs networks
QoS provisioning in OBS networks
  • QoS provisioning in OBS networks:
    • Burst Length Differentiation for different traffic classes
      • Short Bursts (10 KB) for high priority data, real-time voice
      • Long Bursts (40 KB) for regular data
      • Extra Long Bursts (100s of KB) for fast data file transfer
    • Methods for QoS provisioning
      • Offset-Time Differentiation
      • Preemption window mechanism  most efficient for throughput and loss
routing in obs ops isolated adaptive connection oriented routing
Routing in OBS/OPS: Isolated adaptive connection-oriented routing
  • Adaptive path selection based on local node state
    • Congestion conditions
    • Actual link/buffer occupancy
  • Per packet decision, 3 algorithms studies
    • Path Excluding (PE), Multiple Choice (MC), Bypass Path (BP)
  • Improvement over simple Shortest Path (SP)

NSFNet

EON (COST266)

qos routing in obs networks
QoS routing in OBS networks
  • QoS concept based on Hamiltonian Path
    • Embedded ring topology to route Best Effort bursts
    • High-Priority bursts may use any (shortest) path
clustering architecture for nodes of optical networks canon
Clustering Architecture for Nodes of Optical Networks (CANON)
  • Clustering to reduce routing domain size for two-way reservation scheme  no buffering, low losses
  • Master nodes (MN) interconnected by mesh or rings over provisioned WDM channels
control plane aspects
Control Plane Aspects
  • Adapting GMPLS to OBS/OPS networks
    • Current GMPLS protocol chain does not support CL OBS/OPS
    • WR-OBS (= fast ASON) maybe possible (Round Trip Time!)
    • Preventive resource reservation as work-around concept
gmpls uni
GMPLS-UNI
  • GMPLS-UNI designed for CO Packet Switching
    • OBS/OPS with one way reservation need further extensions
  • Extensions developed for multi-layer interoperability of exisiting OIF UNI 1.0
    • Single end-to-end signalling session (client-OTN-client)
    • GMPLS compliance for enanced QoS capabilities
    • Fast notification of failures (cross layer)
    • Explicit routing allows path diversity for protection
    • Failure recovery coordination (cross layer)
    • Scalability by information aggregation and cross layer information (reduced CP traffic volume)
agenda1
Agenda
  • Taskforce “TCP over OBS”
tcp introduction
TCP – Introduction
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the dominating transport protocol in the Internet.
  • More than 80 % of the IP traffic today uses TCP on the transport layer.
  • TCP establishes an end to end connection:
    • Connection oriented
    • Reliability
    • Flow control
    • Congestion Control

Application Oriented

Layers

L 5-7 (e.g. FTP)

L 4 (TCP)

L 3 (IP)

L 2 (OBS)

L 1

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Link Layer

Physical Layer

interaction of tcp and obs
Interaction of TCP and OBS

TCP

Delay, Delay Jitter

Multiple Losses

Reordering

Aggregation of packets

Losses (No buffering)

“Aggregated” Losses

Deflection Routing

Buffering in the Node

OBS

tcp taskforce research topics
TCP Taskforce - Research Topics
  • Topics:
    • Impact of different TCP flavors and TCP parameters on TCP performance
    • Many TCP flows (highly aggregated traffic in metro and core networks)
    • Dependence of TCP performance on number of TCP segments of one flow in a burst
    • Performance of TCP with Deflection Routing
  • Applications:
    • FTP traffic (long-living TCP connection, bulk transfer)
    • HTTP traffic (short-lived TCP connections, short transfers )
  • Scenarios:
    • Single Client/Server behaviour
    • Behaviour of many Clients and Servers
impact of aggregation level on tcp performance
Impact of aggregation level on TCP performance

blue: lossless red: burst loss rate 1% Application:Heavy Web Browsing

x-axis: simulation time y-axis: throughput (bits / sec.)

Summary: Higher aggregation level, i.e. higher number of aggregated clients, reduces the negative effect of burst losses on TCP performance, since less TCP segments per flow are affected by loss of a burst

3 Web Browsing Clients

300 Web Browsing Clients

realistic traffic model for tcp over obs
Realistic Traffic model for TCP over OBS

NOBEL

Classical

  • The classical model considers only one TCP client and one TCP server.
  • The new NOBEL model considers one TCP client, one TCP server and additional traffic sources (fractal traffic).
  • The real number of TCP segments per burst from a single flow is lower than previously assumed.
  • Simulation with TCP SACK and Reno
  • Classical model (without additional traffic): An optimal value of the timer can be found.
  • NOBEL model (with additional traffic): Throughput is similar for the different values.
  • TCP SACK achieves higher throughput than TCP Reno.
tcp performance with deflection routing

Path B

Path A

Server

Client

TCP Performance with Deflection Routing
  • TCP is sensitive to Deflection Routing.
  • Deflection Routing is useful for contention resolution, as the performance degradation due to deflection routing is considerably smaller than the degradation due to burst losses.
  • The aggregation of more packets out of one TCP flow in a burst has positive impact on TCP performance with deflection routing.
summary tcp over obs
Summary – TCP over OBS
  • TCP performs well over OBS networks, if an appropriate TCP parameter set is used and multiple TCP flows are aggregated into bursts.
  • MSS/MTU size heavily impacts the performance of TCP in OBS networks: high MSS/MTU values result in much lower effect on burst loss.
  • The advertized receiver window should be set to the maximum value in OBS networks
  • The higher the number of active users, the lower the effect of burst loss on the throughput in the network
  • TCP SACK achieves higher throughput than TCP Reno.
  • Real number of TCP segments from a single flow is lower than previously assumed
  • Deflection Routing has a negative impact on the TCP performance, but it is useful for contention resolution, as the performance degradation due to deflection routing is considerably smaller than the degradation due to burst losses.
outlook for nobel 2
Outlook for NOBEL 2
  • New WP3 will collect work from old WP3, WP6, WP7
    • Activity 3.1 „Architectures for future advanced burst/packet networks“
      • Network and node architectures based on the opto-electronic solutions drafted by NOBEL WP3
      • Optical burst/packet switching techniques for core and metro networks (reduced O/E/O)
    • Activity 3.2 „Control and management aspects of burst/packet networks“
      • Control plane extensions specific to burst/packet techniques (inclusion in integrated GMPLS control plane)
      • Novel network control & management functions adapted for optical burst/packet networks
      • QoS support in the burst/packet layer (new layer 2 network services and service classes)
  • TCP-over-OBS Taskforce will be an important part of work
    • New TCP flavours
    • Traffic source models derived from measurements from NOBEL partners
    • Influence of new application mixes, traffic asymmetry and burstiness
    • Burst loss due to collisions (network load, topology, burst distribution)
    • Evaluation of hybrid solutions (Circuit / OBS)
    • Generalization of burst reordering problem in high-speed core networks
optical burst packet switching networks and nodes

Optical Burst/Packet Switching Networks and Nodes

Architectures

Functional analysis

Physical layer modelling and performance

Technology/component aspects

Workpackages 3, 6, 7

Joint Activities

Gert Eilenberger

joint wp3 6 7 activities approach
Joint WP3/6/7 Activities - Approach
  • WP3:
    • OBS/OPS network and node architectures
    • Functional analysis, control aspects, feasibility studies
  • WP6:
    • OBS nodes detailled architecture and implementation aspects
    • Physical layer modelling, performance analysis
  • WP7:
    • Technology and components options for OBS nodes
    • Technology/components depending performance limitations, e.g. crosstalk
  • Close links between WPs (common architectures…)
joint wp3 6 7 activities results
Joint WP3/6/7 Activities - Results
  • WP3/D16
    • Various OBS node architectures (AWG, BAS, TAS), OPS architecture
    • First performance studies (X-talk, noise, no of , throughput)
    • Technology and component aspects (requirements, market view)
  • WP3/D23
    • CANON architecture, improved AWG based node + performance
  • WP3/D32
    • TAS nodes feasibility/performance (cascadability, eff. throughput)
    • AWG nodes feasibility/performance (BER vs. X-talk)
joint wp3 6 7 activities results1
Joint WP3/6/7 Activities - Results
  • WP6/D24:
    • OBS node architectures based on cyclic AWGs (no results) [LUNL]
    • OBS nodes (Class I – III) with physical layer modelling and performance results (OSNR, filters, WCs) [ICCS]
  • WP7/D34:
    • Scalability and cascadability of OBS nodes (technology/component aspects): noise + crosstalk => max. no. of wavelengths
    • AWG based nodes, BAS nodes, TAS nodes
why physical obs node design

OBS

node

edge

router

Physical limitations:

  • Component availability
  • Signal degradation (BER)
    • Noise
    • Crosstalk
    • Nonlinearities
Why physical OBS node design?

Which throughput can be achieved with state of the art components?

throughput of tas nodes with 4 fibers at 10 gbit s

12

256

10

8

148

132

Throughput [Tbps]

6

96

4

2

10

0

0

NRZ

NRZ

NRZ

RZ

RZ

RZ

modulation format

SOA type

Gain-clamped SOAs have to be used! NRZ modulation is superior

Throughput of TAS Nodes with 4 Fibersat 10 Gbit/s

maximum throughput due to physical limitations

maximum number

of wavelengths per fiber

allowed throughput to achieve a burst loss rate < 10-6 (effective throughput)

Reference

SOA

Conventional

SOA

Gain-clamped

SOA

bas opt packet crossconnect architectures
BAS Opt. Packet Crossconnect Architectures

Class-I

Class-III

  • Applying tunable  converters
slide45

WP3

Thank you for your attention!

connection oriented ops scenario
Connection-oriented OPS scenario
  • Main Property: Shared WDM links
    • Several wavelengths to choose from on the same output fibre
  • Problem:
    • Algorithm to map the Optical Virtual Circuits (OVCs) into the output wavelengths
  • Solution:
    • At OVC set up: Assign the OVC to the optimum wavelength
    • Using a dynamic wavelength assignment during the OVC life: In case of congestion, move the OVC to another wavelength using a Wavelength Selection(WS) algorithm
qos provisioning different ws algorithm per service category

10-1

TSWS

LBWS

SKWS

10-2

10-3

Packet Loss Rate (PLR)

10-4

10-5

10-6

0.4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Granularity D

1.2

QoS provisioning: Different WS Algorithm per Service Category
  • ATM like scheme: Provide K different categories of service based on K different WS algorithms
    • Each WS algorithm presents different performance
    • Thus, we can map the service categories into the WS algorithm according to the QoS requirements of these service categories
  • Case study:
    • 3 Categories of service
    • 3 WS algorithms
  • Problem:
    • The WS algorithms do not have performance alignment with the optical buffer granularity (D)
  • D = (FDL-size / Average IPpacket-size) x (Vt / Vp)
  • Our solution:
    • Redesigning the Optical Buffer architecture

TSWS: Two State WS

LBWS: Loss Bounded WS

SKWS: Sequence Keeping WS

qos provisioning proposed optical buffer architecture

1

RT

LS

10-1

BE

10-2

10-3

Packet Loss Rate (PLR)

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Granularity D

QoS provisioning: Proposed Optical Buffer Architecture
  • Non consecutive FDL
    • FDL sequence: multiples of 1.2 / 0.4 = 3
    • Example:
      • Optical buffer with 6 FDLs: Sequence: 0, 1, 2, 3 (1 x 3), 6 (2 x 3), 9 (3 x 3)
  • With this Optical Buffer Architecture we got:
    • The alignment of the WS algorithms performance
    • The aimed QoS provisioning:
      • Real Time (RT)
        • Very low PLR and no out of sequence packet
      • Loss Sensitive (LS)
        • Bounded PLR
      • Best Effort (BE)
        • Acceptable PLR
qos provisioning proper optical buffer architecture
QoS provisioning: Proper Optical Buffer Architecture
  • Consistency of the solution:
    • Such a non-consecutive Optical Buffer Architecture depends on two design parameters, namely the propagation rate (Vp) and the transmission rate (Vt), an on the average IP (MPLS) packet size
      • The average IP packet size measured at the Catalan Academic Network over one day in September 2003 was 582 Bytes.
      • This measure done one year later (in October 2004) raised to 641 Bytes
      • And this year (in October 2005) we obtained an average IP packet size of 662 Bytes
qos provisioning proper optical buffer architecture1
QoS provisioning: Proper Optical Buffer Architecture
  • Consistency of the solution:
    • Impact of the Average_IP-packet-size variation:
      • In our simulations we used: Vt = 2.5 Gbps, Vp = 2 108 mps and an Average_IPpacket-size = 500 Bytes

 To fix the working point at D = 0.4, the required FDL-size = 128 m

      • If the Average_IP-packet-size = 582 Bytes

 To fix the working point at D = 0.4, the required FDL-size = 155 m

 With a FDL-size = 128 m, the obtained performance will be that for D = 0.34

      • If the Average_IP-packet-size = 641 Bytes

 To fix the working point at D = 0.4, the required FDL-size = 171 m

 With a FDL-size = 128 m, the obtained performance will be that for D = 0.31

      • If the Average_IP-packet-size = 662 Bytes

 To fix the working point at D = 0.4, the required FDL-size = 176 m

 With a FDL size = 128 m, the obtained performance will be that for D = 0.30

motivation for burst packet switching x
Motivation for Burst/Packet Switching (x)

Pure IP (IP backbone with big, fat routers)

  • Features:
    • No dedicated aggregation function (done in the router line card)
    • Point to point links
    • Best packet multiplexing and routing flexibility
  • Main issues = complexity and costs
    • Network Processor: Mio packets/s to handle
    • Many and complex protocols (control plane)
    • High speed memory + scheduling
    • High line card cost
    • Will reach scalability limits (equipment critical size/capacity)
    • Transit traffic has to be processed in each node

Pure IP

Edge Routers

Core Router

Future proof scenario?? (used here as reference)

motivation for burst packet switching y
Motivation for Burst/Packet Switching (y)

Current generation crossconnects (SDH, OXC)

  • Features:
    • Aggregation router (traffic sink)
    • Packet over SONET (POS) interfaces
    • Point to point links, circuit switched
    • Sub-wavelength granularity switching (VC SONET/SDH hierarchy)
  • Main Issues:
    • Connectivity limitations (N2 problem; N= nb of nodes)
    • Low filling of the resources due to traffic partitioning
    • Virtual concatenation
    • Multi-hopping  rerouting of traffic in the IP layer
    • Need for finer granularities and dynamic reconfiguration

IP/OXC

Edge Routers

IP

router

Cross Connect

Difficult trade-off: connectivity vs. resource efficiency when choosing the granularity

slide54

OPXC Nodes - Preliminary Conclusions

  • Modeling work has already started and will continue in the second year
  • Preliminary results indicate the following with respect to the aforementioned architectures:
    • Class-I, Total Transported Capacity (BER: 10-15no FEC):
    • 20 nodes x10Tb/s all-optical WCs
    • 10 nodes x10Tb/s o/e WCs
    • Class-II, Total Transported Capacity (BER: 10-15no FEC):
    • 5 nodes x10Tb/s all-optical WCs
    • 20 nodes x10Tb/s o/e WCs
  • Class-II o/e outperforms the O-O due to the inherent noise emission of the XPM-MZI of the latter. Class-I O-O has stepper non-linear transfer function.
slide55

H

H

A1

G1

E1

B1

F1

C1

H

H

H

H

H

H

Burst Blocking due to Collision

ElectronicDomain

EdgeNode

B

F

D

G

A

E

C

OpticalDomain

CoreNode

D1

wp3 advanced packet burst switching1
WP3: Advanced Packet/Burst Switching

Activities

  • A3.1

Optical core & metro burst/packet network & node architecture & evolution

  • A3.2

Optimal balance of opt. and el. technologies (transparency vs. O/E/O)

  • A3.3

Novel control & management functions for optical burst/packet networks

  • A3.4

QoS in optical burst/packet layer (reservation, allocation, signalling, regeneration)

  • A3.5

Contribution to possible extensions and/or evolution of standards

qos provisioning in connection oriented ops networks
QoS provisioning in connection oriented OPS networks
  • Service categories:
    • Best Effort (no requirements)
    • Loss Sensitivity (low packet loss rates and variations)
    • Real Time (very low loss and low delay, no out of sequence)
  • Wavelength selection algorithms
    • Two-State Wavelength Selection
    • Loss Bound Wavelength Selection
    • Sequence Keeping Wavelength Selection
  • THESE RESULTS WERE NOT FOUND IN D16/23/32!!!