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The Internationalization of English. Jenkins (2003, pp. 33-38). Changes in the second half of the 20th century. English became an international language. Change in global communication Scholarship about English became international. Change in language education

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the internationalization of english

The Internationalization of English

Jenkins (2003, pp. 33-38)

changes in the second half of the 20th century
Changes in the second half of the 20th century
  • English became an international language.
    • Change in global communication
  • Scholarship about English became international.
    • Change in language education
  • The ownership of an internet in English became international.
    • Change in media communication
overview of this article
Overview of this article
  • The reasons why English remains the world’s major international language
  • The need to ensure mutual intelligibility across international varieties of English
critical view about english as an international language
Critical view about English as an international language
  • Phillipson (1992)
    • Linguistic imperialism
    • Potential to jeopardize the learning of other languages
    • Potential to jeopardize the existence of smaller languages
why is english the international language crystal 1997
Why is English the international language? Crystal (1997)
  • Historical
  • Internal political
  • External political
  • Practical
  • Intellectual
  • Entertainment
historical reasons
Historical reasons
  • Colonies of Britain & US (in the Outer Circle territories) used English for their main institutions such as the following:
    • Parliament
    • Government agencies
    • Civil service
    • Law courts
    • Religious bodies
    • Schools
    • Higher education
internal political reasons
Internal political reasons
  • English may provide a neutral means of domestic communication between different ethnic groups as in India.
  • A distinctive local variety may serve as a symbol of national unification.
external economic reasons
External economic reasons
  • The USA’s dominant economic position has considerable pressure on multinational business organizations, especially tourist and advertizing industries to work with English.
practical reasons
Practical reasons
  • In reality, English is the international language in the following contexts:

- Air traffic control

- Maritime, policing and emergency services

- Academic conferences

- Tourism

intellectual reasons
Intellectual reasons
  • Most of the scientific, technological, and academic information in the world is expressed in English.
  • Over 80 per cent of all the information stored in electronic retrieval systems is in English.
entertainment reasons
Entertainment reasons
  • English is the main language in the following contexts:

- Pop music

- Pop culture

- Satellite broadcasting

- Home computers and video games

the conflict between mutual intelligibility and group identity
The conflict between mutual intelligibility and group identity
  • The evident problem is intelligibility in the spoken language.
  • It is spoken language that is closely bound up with feelings of personal and group identity.
  • There is strong justification for not conforming to the accent of native speakers from the point of view of EIL.
activity 1 intelligibility vs identity 1
Activity 1: Intelligibility vs Identity 1
  • Have you ever given thought to retaining your L1 identigy in English?
  • Is it important to you to retain your L1 identity in English?
  • Are you more concerned to be intelligible to native speakers of English or to non-native speakers of English, or do you not distinguish between the two groups of listener?
activity 1 intelligibility vs identity 2
Activity 1: Intelligibility vs Identity 2
  • Do you believe it is appropriate to retain your L1 accent in your English or that you should attempt to sound ‘native-like’?
  • Do you believe it is possible to retain your L1 accent in English and still be intelligible to native-speakers?/non-native speakers?
activity 2 intelligibility vs identity
Activity 2: Intelligibility vs Identity
  • What do you think about the following quote?
    • Most people quite simply do not learn English to speak to native-speakers. On the other hand, people learn Spanish, …, because they are interested in Hispanic culture for some reason … and will therefore want a spoken and written model which will further this aim. There is a world of difference between English, and in fact, all other living languages at present.

(Prodromou, 1997, p. 19)