Aboriginal Australia Changing Rights and Freedoms. Changing government policies towards Aboriginal peoples over time. Protection, Assimilation, Integration, Self-determination. The Policies. For policy you will need to answer the following; What was the policy – definition Time period
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Changing government policies towards Aboriginal peoples over time.
Protection, Assimilation, Integration, Self-determination
For policy you will need to answer the following;
controlling all aspects of
Indigenous peoples’ lives
Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW)
“There shall be a board for the protection of Aborigines and it will be headed by the Inspector-General of Police.
The duties of the board will be to:
Aborigines Act 1886 (Vic)
“The Governor in Council may make regulations and orders;-
For prescribing the place where any aboriginal or any tribe of aboriginals may reside...
For the care custody and education of the children of aboriginals...
All bedding, clothing and other articles issued or distributed to the aboriginals...shall be considered on loan only, and shall remain the property of his Majesty...”
"We do not ask for your protection. No thanks! We have had 150 years of that! We our only ask for justice, decency and fair play. Do not be guided by religious and scientific persons...let the Aborigines themselves tell you what they want."
William Ferguson & Jack Patten26 January 1938, Australian Hall, SydneyDay of Mourning and Protest
From the 1961 Native Welfare Conference: All Aborigines and part-Aborigines are expected eventually to attain the same manner of living as other Australians and to live as members of single Australian community enjoying the same rights and privileges, accepting the same responsibilities, observing the same customs and influenced by the same beliefs, hopes and loyalties as other Australians.
From the 1965 Aboriginal Welfare Conference: The policy of Assimilation seeks that all persons of Aboriginal decent will choose to attain a similar manner and standard of living to that of other Australians and live as members of a single Australian Community.
The forced removal of children from their families took place under the regulations and guidelines of the Assimilation Policy.
"We have power under the act to take any child from its mother at any stage of its life... Are we going to have a population of one million blacks in the Commonwealth or are we going to merge them into our white community and eventually forget that there were ever any Aborigines [sic?] in Australia?"
A O Neville, Chief Protector of Aborigines, WANative Welfare Conference, 1937Quoted 'Sorry', Sydney Morning Herald 30 May 1998, p.41
David Hollinsworth in his book Race and Racism in Australia, quotes:
"Generally by the fifth and invariably by the sixth generation, all native characteristics of the Australian aborigine are eradicated. The problem of our half-castes will quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white."
Dr. Cecil Cook, NT Chief Protector 1927-39:
MOREE, Saturday. - Mob violence exploded here today as student freedom riders were attacked by a crowd crazed with race hate. White women spat on girl students and screamed filthy words as the students tried to win Aboriginal children admission to the town baths.Several people were arrested and the town's mayor, Alderman William Lloyd, pitched into the battle, grabbing students by the scruff of their necks and hurling them out of the way.Throughout the fighting a barrage of eggs and rotten fruit rained on the students.Mr Jim Spigelman, a 19-year-old student from Maroubra, was smacked to the ground while the 500 strong crowd roared its approval.
February 21, 1965
“The common saying of the staff [to the Aboriginal girls taken to the Cootamundra Domestic Training Home for Aboriginal Girls] was “live like a white person”...They were making us white – think white – look white – act white. [We were told] “there is a good chance that you will marry a white man and your children will be lighter...and their children will be lighter until they are completely white.””
Kathleen Miller’s oral history record, 1982
“In time...[the assimilation] policy came under attack, with critics pointing to its denial of aboriginal culture, the arrogant assumption of the superiority of the white culture, and the dependency that it helped engender. For a time, ‘integration’ became Commonwealth policy, though it was difficult to detect the differences between ‘assimilation’ and ‘integration’. With attitudes this changing – though not in Queensland, which remained determinedly assimilationist in its approach until well into the 1980s – the other State governments began to reform many of the laws that denied Aborigines equality with the rest of the Australian community.”
Scott Bennett, White Politics and White Australians, 1999
In 1990 the Australian government established the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC). The government body formally involved Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the processes of government affecting their lives.
In the early 2000s the ATSIC became more and more embroiled in controversy over its finances, powers and the activities of its last chair.
In March 2005 the Howard government succeeded in abolishing the ATSIC
Nearly five years after the abolition of the ATSIC the Australian government announced that it would support a new national representative body for Aboriginal Australians.
The National Congress of Australia's First Peoples emerged from a series of Aboriginal community meetings throughout the country, peak body talks, a national forum and written submissions
A new national Indigenous representative body will be called the National Congress of Australia's First Peoples. Social Justice Commissioner Calma, who has convened the independent Indigenous Steering Committee since December 2008, announced the name after the Federal Government confirmed it had accepted the recommendations of the Committee's report, Our future in our hands, and agreed to initial funding of the organisation until December 2013.
Commissioner Calma said that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have been without a representative voice for too long.
He said that setting up the new body was a monumental task that would require a development phase until the end of 2010. The Government is providing $29 million over four years for the policy and an advocacy body which will not be delivering programs and services.
Imparja Television is an Aboriginal-owned broadcasting station in Alice Springs, NT, operating since June 1988. Its services include National Indigenous Television (NITV) which was launched in mid-2007, and eight Aboriginal radio stations .
Nine Imparja has the largest broadcast area in Australia, covering 3.6 million square kilometres across six states and territories with an estimated audience of 430,000 people. It comes free-to-air and competes with the national market for advertising revenue.
Indigenous Business Australia is a government agency which
assists and enhances Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander self-management and economic self-sufficiency and
advances the commercial and economic interests of Indigenous people by accumulating and using capital assets.
One of the tasks of IBA is to help Aboriginal people achieve home ownership. In 2001 Indigenous home ownership was at 32% while the national non-Indigenous average was 68% . IBA wants to raise this rate to 40%. In 2008 its customers come from NSW (29%), QLD (27%), NT (16%), VIC (10%) and WA (8%).
Many Australian governments have been quick to determine what's 'best' for Aboriginal people failing to consult them in the process. But "initiatives developed on the ground, by the people for the people, have a far greater likelihood of working. It's a model for self-determination," says Linda Burney, NSW Community Services Minister and Wiradjuri woman
"We've settled our governance arrangements by ourselves; it's been many years of work by people who have been prepared to put their differences aside and work together on shared goals. The fact that we've taken ownership of the problem is 50 per cent of the solution," adds Sam Jeffries, head of the MurdiPaaki community leader group
We are the people we've been waiting for. —Mary Victor O'Reeri, Aboriginal community of Billard, Western Australia
Changing Rights and freedoms
Continuity and change
Rights – education, health, representation, choice of religion, culture, shelter, food
Freedoms – speech, choice, movement, relationships
How have things stayed the same – continuity
How have things changed - change