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MANAGEMENT OF GRASSLANDS. PRM 504 (3 UNITS) COORDINATOR: Prof. O. S . Onifade. MANAGEMENT OF GRASSLAND. FACTORS CAUSING LOW LEVEL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION STOCKING RATE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION

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management of grasslands

MANAGEMENT OF GRASSLANDS

PRM 504 (3 UNITS)

COORDINATOR: Prof. O. S . Onifade

management of grassland
MANAGEMENT OF GRASSLAND
  • FACTORS CAUSING LOW LEVEL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  • STOCKING RATE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  • MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE PRODUCTION : IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY, BUSH CONTROL, DIRECT RESEEDING, PROVISION OF WATER, PROVISION OF DRY SEASON FEEDS, FENCING,NOXIOUS PLANTS, DISEASES
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION: LAND USED PRINCIPALLY FOR EXTENSIVE GRAZING BY DOMESTIC &WILD ANIMALS. VEGETATION ZONES – SHRUB LAND, GRASSLANDS & OPEN FORESTS LAND. USUALLY UNSUITABLE FOR ARABLE FARMING. TOO DRY, STEEP, SHALLOW, ROCKY, SANDY, SALINE, HIGH EVAPORATION…
  • AIM OF MANAGEMENT – MANAGE LAND TO PRODUCE FORAGE &TO PROMOTE/MAINTAIN
introduction cont
INTRODUCTION cont.

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS.

*PREVENT DESTRUCTION OF NATURAL ECOSYSTEM- STABLE VEGETATION

*ENSURE CONTINUOUS VIGOR OF PALATABLE & NUTRITIOUS SPP.

*PREVENT SIOL EROSION

low level of animal production from grassland why
LOW LEVEL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION FROM GRASSLAND, WHY?
  • LIMITATION IMPOSED BY THE ENVIRONMENT a. CLIMATE -RAINFALL USUALLY LOW & . SEASONALLY DISTRIBUTED. – LONG PERIOD OF DROUGHT &LIMITED WATER SUPPLY.

b. SOIL – GENERALLY LOW IN FERTILITY - N,P,Ca…

c. UNSTABLE GRASSLAND COMMUNITY – TENDENCY FOR INGRESS OF TREES & SHRUBS.

stocking rate and animal production
STOCKING RATE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  • APPLIES TO SOWN AND RANGE PASTURES
  • MOTT (1961) EVOLVED THE RELATIONSHIP BASED ON A NO OF GRAZING TRIALS
  • GRAZING PRESSURE; THE NO OF ANIMAL/UNIT OF AVAILABLE FORAGE
  • PRODUCT/ANIMAL DECREASES SLIGHTLY AS SR IS INCREASED FROM LENIENT RATE TO THE OPTIMUM RATE THAN DECREASES RAPIDLY AS THE OPTIMUN GRAZING RATE IS EXCEEDED.
stocking rate animal production cont
STOCKING RATE &ANIMAL PRODUCTION cont.
  • PRODUCT /HECTARE RISES VERY RAPIDLY AS SR IS INCREASED FROM THE UNDERGRAZED CONDITION TO THE OPT. GRAZING PRESSURE.
  • MAXIMUM PRODUCT /HA WILL OCCUR AT A SR IN EXCESS OF THE OPTIMUM…
  • BEYOND THIS POINT, A VERY RAPID FALL IN PRODUCT/HA OCCURS
relationship between stocking rate and animal production
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STOCKING RATE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  • PRODUCTION/ANIMAL DECREASES FROM A VERY LENIENT RATE TO THE OPTIMUM RATE AND THEN DECREASES VERY RAPIDLY AS THE OPTIMUM GRAZING PRESSURE (OGP) IS EXCEEDED.
  • PRODUCTION/HA RISES VERY RAPIDLY AS SR IS INCREASED FROM THE UNDERGRAZED CONDITION TO THE OGP. MAX OUTPUT/HA OCCURRED AT A SR IN EXCESS OF OPTIMUM SR. BEYOND THIS POINT A VERY RAPID FALL IN PRODUCTION/HA OCCURS.
grazing pressure stocking rate carrying capacity
GRAZING PRESSURE, STOCKING RATE & CARRYING CAPACITY
  • GP:- THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER OF ANIMALS PER UNIT OF AVAILABLE FORAGE.
  • SR:- NUMBER OF ANIMAL PER UNIT AREA Eg. 20 BULLS/HA
  • CC– THE AREA OF RANGELAND REQUIRED TO CARRY ONE MATURE ANIMAL (MAINTENANCE AND SOME PRODUCTION) THROUGH OUT THE YEAR. AREA SHOULD BE MANAGED TO PREVENT ANY ADVERSE EFFECT ON THE LAND. Eg. 1 Ha/ MATURE BEAST IN FOREST ZONE , 3-5% MATURE BEAST IN SUBHUMID SAVANNAH
purposes of proper stocking
PURPOSES OF PROPER STOCKING:
  • TO MAINTAIN EFFICIENT GREEN LEAVES AND SHOOTS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • PROVIDE AND PRESERVE THE FOOD DESERVES STORED BY THE PLANT FOR USE IN MAKING QUICK REGROWTH
  • PERMIT SEED PRODUCTION FOR THE MAINTAINED OF PLAST STAND
  • TO PROTECT YOUNG SEEDLINGS TILL THEY CANT DERATE GRAZING
purposes of proper stocking cont
PURPOSES OF PROPER STOCKING Cont.:
  • TO INCREASE THE BETTER PLANTS WHICH KEEP OUT WEEDS AND POOR ANNUAL GRASSES
  • TO PROTECT THE SOIL FROM WIND AND WATER EROSION
  • TO LEAVE A VEGETATIVE COVER WHICH ACTS AS A MULCH AND RESULTS IN INCREASED HZ0 ABSORPTION AND STORAGE IN THE SOIL.
  • TO PREVENT EXTREMES IN SOIL TEMPERATURES BY ACTING AS AN INSULATOR.
management techniques
MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
  • BUSH CONTROL
  • DIRECT RESEEDING
  • RANGE USE AND PROVISION OF WATER
  • FENCING
  • PROVISION OF DRY SEASON FEED
  • GRAZING MANAGEMENT
bush control
BUSH CONTROL
  • REDUCTION IN DENSITY OF UNDESIRABLE PLANTS BY MANUAL,MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL , BIOLOGICAL OR OTHER MEANS.
  • CLASSES OF UNDESIRABLE PLANTS :

* WEEDY: COMPETES FOR SPACE & NUTRIENTS WITH FORAGE SPP THUS REDUCING YIELD AND UTILIZATION. Eg Isoberlinia doka, Cassia tora.

bush control cont
BUSH CONTROL Cont.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN ANIMAL. Eg. Crotalaria retusa, Ricinuscommunis.

OBJECTIVES OF BUSH CONTROL

  • REMOVAL OF UNDESIRABLE PLANTS –REDUCE COMPETITION FOR NUTRIENTS & WATER TO FORAGE SPP.
  • REDUCTION OF SHRUBS- PROVIDE LARGE SURFACE AREA FOR SEEDING, SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT
weed control cont
WEED CONTROL CONT.

* MECHANICALLY INJURIOUS: PLANTS WITH PROJECTING APPENDAGES ( SPINES, STIPLES, BURRS) THAT CAN PUNCTURE SKIN OF ANIMAL, EXPOSURE TO INSECTS & DISEASES.

Eg. Acacia spp, Cenchrus biflorus

*POISONOUS PLANTS:CONTAINING TOXIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS WITHIN TISSUES. WHEN INGESTED & DIGESTED RELEASES TOXIC BY- PRODUCTS. INTERFERES WITH

slide16

3.REMOVAL OF OBSTRUCTIVE SHRUBS- PROVIDE PASTURE ACCESS,HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK.

4. REMOVAL OF SHRUBS – FACILITATE WATER DRAINAGE & EROSION CONTROL.

5. REMOVAL OF SHRUBS – REDUCE FUEL MATERIAL FOR RANGE FIRE.

6. ELIMINATION OF POISONOUS PLANTS WITH DIRECT EFFECT ON GRAZING ANIMALS.

bush control methods
BUSH CONTROL METHODS

BIOLOGICAL, MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL & BURNING.

BEST METHODS DEPEND ON :

KIND OF PLANT,DAMAGE TO EXISTING DESIRA- BLE SPP, CHARACTER OF THE TOPOGRAPHY & SOIL, NEED FOR SEEDBED PREPARATION, EFFECTIVENESS & SPEED OF THE TREATMENT, AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT& MATERIALS (HERBICIDES),.

bush control methods18
BUSH CONTROL METHODS

BIOLOGICAL- INTRODUCTION OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF THE UNDESIRABLE PLANTS. - ANIPULATING GRAZING eg MIXED GRAZING.

MECHANICAL – HAND GRUBBING, HAND CHOPPING & SAWING. – BULLDOZING.- CHAINING. – SURFACE TILLAGE (PLOUGING,DISCING, HARROWING).- MOWING & SHREDDING.

HERBICIDAL- CONTACT, SYSTEMIC

burning
BURNING

USE OF FIRE IN MANAGING PASTURES:

  • BURN OFF UNPALATABLE GROWTH FROM PREVIOUS SEASON. – STIMULATE GROWTH DURING SEASON OF LITTLE GREEN MATERIALS
  • DESTROY PARASITES. – CONTROL INGRESS OF UNDESIRABLE PLANTS. – PREPARE A SEEDBED FOR PASTURE. – PROMOTE UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF USEFUL HERBAGE & BETTER DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS IN PASTURES.
burning cont
Burning cont.
  • STIMULATE GRASSES TO PRODUCE SEEDS. – ENCOURAGE GROWTH OF NATURAL LEGUMES FOR SOIL IMPROVEMENT.

HARMFUL EFFECTS: MAY LEAD TO DEPLETION OF ROOT RESERVES OF PALATABLE SPP & PROGRESSIVVE REDUCTION IN VIGOR &COMPETITIVE ABILITY. INVASION OF UNDESIRABLE SPP & EROSION HAZARDS INCREASED.

direct reseeding
DIRECT RESEEDING
  • INTRODUCTION OF MORE DESIRABLE HERBAGE SPP INTO EXISTING RANGELAND VEGETATION
  • ADOPTION OF SUITABLE MANAGEMENT TO ENABLE THEM COMPETE SUCCESSFULLY

TECHNIQUES:

(1) BROADCASTING – BY HAND OR AERIALLY LEGUME SEED + SPP

(2) PLOUGHING WIDELY SPACED FURROWS – SEED IS SOWN IN SUCH STRIPS, SPREAD INTO THE RANG THROUGH WIND, ANIMALS ETC

direct reseeding cont
DIRECT RESEEDING cont.
  • (3) OVER DRILLING (SOD SEEDING) – PLANTING SEED DIRECTLY INTO EXISTING SWARD, NO PLOUGHING, USE OF DISCS, PLANTERS (PARTIAL DISTURBANCE)
  • (4) USE OF GRAZING ANIMALS. STYLO + SORGHUM MEAL FED TO CATTLE, SEEDS IN FAECES TO RANGELAND.
  • BEST AT THE END OF DRY SEASON BURNING TO BROADCAST STYLO + SPP
range use and provision of water
RANGE USE AND PROVISION OF WATER
  • SOURCES OF WATER – PERENNIAL STREAMS, DAMS, SURFACE PONDS, WELLS AND BOREHOLES.
  • LIVERFLUKE INFESTATION AND TSETSE FLY HABITAT (EXCEPT BOREHOLE)
  • BOREHOLE : PASTURE MORE UNIFORMLY USED OVER THE RANGE DISEASE TRANSMISSION IS LOW
  • CONCENTRATION AT WATER POINT IS REDUCED
  • HIGH COST OF MAINTENANCE AND WASTAGE OF WATER
  • DAILY WATERING GIVES HIGHER LWG THAN EVERY 2ND AND 3RD DAY.
range use provision of water cont
RANGE USE &PROVISION OF WATER cont.
  • 300 KG ANIMAL REQUIRE 8-10 L/DAY – RAINY SEASON
  • 16 – 20 L/DAY REQUIRED DURING DRY SEASON.
  • ZONES OF PASTURE USE CLEARLY DEFINED AROUND WATER POINTS – IN CONCENTRIC CIRCLES
  • GRAZING DISTANCES FROM WATER SUPPLY – NOT TO EXCEED 5KM (SHEEP), 10-16 KM (CATTLE).
  • LONG DISTANCES, LOW PRODUCTIVITY
  • USE OF TROUGHS (CONCRETE) FOR LARGE HERD
range use and provision of water cont
RANGE USE AND PROVISION OF WATER cont.
  • LONG DISTANCES, LOW PRODUCTIVITY
  • USE OF TROUGHS (CONCRETE) FOR LARGE HERDS
  • PROVISION OF SHADE AND MINERAL LICKS (NaCl, CaCO3, S & P COMPOUNDS) FOR BETTER RANGE USE.
  • ADD SOLUBLE MINERALS TO DRINKING WATER MORE PRACTICAL THAN THROUGH HERBAGE (FERTILIZER)
provision of dry season feeds
PROVISION OF DRY SEASON FEEDS
  • TO MINIMIZE/PREVENT LOSS OF WEIGHT
  • PASTURE LEGUMES (FODDER BANK)
  • GROWING OF PASTURE LEGUMES FIELDS/STRIPS FOR RATION GRAZING
  • ADJACENT TO THE RANGELAND (SUPPLEMENT)
  • S. guianensis, S. hamata WITH ABOUT 9-10% CP, GRAZED AT NIGHT, LOSSES IN WEIGHTS WERE NOT RECORDED
  • HIGHER YIELDS IN SECOND YEAR
  • PROTECTION FROM DRY SEASON FIRE IS ESSENTIAL.
provision of dry season feeds27
PROVISION OF DRY SEASON FEEDS
  • LEGUME HAY
  • PROVISION OF HAY MADE FROM GROUNDNUT, MUCUNA, COWPEA, LABLAB, SOYBEAN ETC FROM SUITABLE SITES.
  • MORE COSTLY THAN PASTURE LEGUMES
  • USED FOR GROWING ANIMALS/FATTENING MAINLY
use of arable by products
USE OF ARABLE BY-PRODUCTS
  • CROP RESIDUES – SORGHUM, MILLET, CORN & RICE. NEED TO ADD PROTEIN RICH SUPPLEMENTS:- GROUNDNUT HAULMS, STYLO, ETC FOR WEIGHT GAINS IN THE DRY SEASON.
  • TREATMENT WITH UREA TO INCREASE N INTAKE.
  • IS IT WORTH SACRIFICING STANDING HAY FOR SMALLER QUANTITY OR BETTER QUALITY FEED?
  • BUSH BURNING VS PROTECTION IN SEMI ARID ZONES?
use of browse plant
USE OF BROWSE PLANT
  • RICH IN PROTEIN & MINERALS WHEN GRASSES ARE DEFICIENT IN THESE ATTRIBUTES
  • PODS, TWIGS & LEAVES ARE VERY IMPORTANT
  • C. cajan, L. leucocephala, G. sepium (SOWN)
  • USE OF COTTON SEED AND GROUNDNUT CAKES
  • FED IN ADDITION TO RANGE GRAZING →WEIGHT GAINS
  • AMOUNT/HD VARIES WITH PRODUCTION EXPECTED
stimulating growth and utilization of regrowth
STIMULATING GROWTH AND UTILIZATION OF REGROWTH.
  • CONTROLLED BURNING – LATE DRY SEASON
  • REMOVE DRY & UNPALATABLE OLD VEGETATION
  • STIMULATE REGROWTH OF HERBAGE WITH 1ST RAINS
  • Acacia spp Gmelina arborea, Piliostigma spp, Khaya senegalensis (mahogany)
  • WHEN CLEARING LAND, SOME SHOULD BE RETAINED
slide32

FADAMA GRAZING

  • AVAILABLE IN DRY SEASON WHEN FLOOD PLAINS ARE
  • EXPOSED DUE TO LOW LEVELS OF RIVER/STREAMS
  • YIELD & QUANTITY OF FEED CAN BE IMPROVED
  • THROUGH SPP INTRODUCTION
  • AREAS CAN ALSO BE SET ASIDE FOR IRRIGATING
  • FORAGE CROPS.
  • IRRIGATION
  • FOUND IN LAKE CHAD, TIGA DAM, KADAWA
  • INCLUSION OF FORAGE SPP IN CROPPING SCHEMES
  • WILL ENHANCE FINISHING OF ANIMALS FROM
  • RANGE TO THE MARKET.
slide33

d. INCIDENCE OF DISEASES & INSECTS – UNDER UTILIZATION OF GRAZING LAND AS A RESULT OF TSETSE FLY INFESTATION. PRODUCTION & QUALITY OF GRASS ARE LOW & UNEVENLY DISTRIBUTED WITHIN THE YEAR LEADING TO SEASONAL VARIATION IN CARRYING CAPACITY.

2. SOCIOLOGICAL CAUSES.

a. NOMADISM -