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Food Science B Cookies!. Science Olympiad Food Science B Event 2010 Sharon Ramsey Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences NC State University. Notebooks. Notebook keeping experiments 30% of score label, nutrition calculations, paragraph 22% of score. Notebooks.

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food science b cookies

Food Science BCookies!

Science Olympiad

Food Science B Event 2010

Sharon Ramsey

Department of Food, Bioprocessing and

Nutrition Sciences

NC State University

  • Notebook keeping
    • experiments 30% of score
    • label, nutrition calculations, paragraph 22% of score
  • Any notebook that securely holds all items
  • Number all pages
  • Table of contents –
  • Document each trial. Data!
    • Discuss results, changes. Graphs need labels.
  • Include Package Labels in notebook– no package this year-, Nutrition calculations and explanatory paragraph for cookies
  • Will be returned as you leave event
spoilage contamination
  • Good sanitation in “lab” area
  • During processing
    • Metal contamination
    • Ingredient contamination
    • Heating, cooling problems
  • Storage
    • Molds
    • Flavor changes
    • Texture changes
before your event
Before your event
  • experiments and label
    • Methods for forming
    • Differences in lipids, sugars, time and temperature effects
      • Traditional, convection, microwave ovens
      • Maillard browning, caramelization
    • Labeling
types of heating
Types of heating
  • Types of heating
    • Convection – moving air
    • Conduction – contact
    • Radiation - broiler
    • Microwave – energy into water, fat and sugar molecules
moisture loss in cookies
Moisture loss in cookies
  • Need to weigh dough before and cookie after cooling.
  • Subtract weight of cookie from weight of dough to find amount of water lost
  • Divide water lost by initial weight of dough and multiply result by 100
  • (Weight initial-weight final)

weight initial

x 100

  • Mass per unit volume
    • Expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) or grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3)
    • dependent on temperature and pressure (PV=nRT)
    • Liquids- Place a known volume of liquid on a balance measure in graduated cylinder, pipet, etc.
    • Solids
      • traditional shapes
        • may use geometry to figure out area of sample, then weigh to obtain mass
  • Name for product…get creative!
  • Ingredients, nutritional label (correct from ingredients) and serving size
  • Weight of package (for one batch of cookies)
  • Graphics – take photo or draw pictures
  • Marketing message
  • Size of print
  • Placement of label items
    • main item name is largest type on package
    • ingredients statement- ingredients in decreasing order
    • company name and address
    • Weight for package
nutritional labels
Nutritional labels
  • Carbohydrates and proteins yield 4 kcal/g when consumed
  • lipids average yield 9 kcal/g when consumed
  • fats are the most concentrated source of food calories
  • carbohydrates are the cheapest source of calories
  • proteins the most expensive
  • Labels should be complete. Must figure out values by using the values of ingredients and amount used. These are mostly math problems.
nutritional labeling
Nutritional labeling
  • If your final formulation contains 1 cup flour, 1 cup butter, 1 cup sugar and 1 tsp vanilla, how would you calculate the nutrition facts and ingredient list?
  • Use nutrition facts from each ingredient.
  • Make a table in your notebook for each type of nutrient (total fats, saturated fat, cholesterol, etc.)
  • Calculate the number of servings of each ingredient in your formulation (total grams used/g in serving size).
  • Multiply each type of nutrient by this number and place answer in table.
  • When all ingredients done, total results for batch.
  • Divide these results by the number of cookies the batch of dough made.
  • Figure out serving size you want or use labeling regulations (2-3 cookies, 10 cookies? Depends on size – marketing?).
  • Multiply the results of step 6 times the number of cookies in the serving.
at the event
At the event
  • Basic lab skills for event
    • Pipeting
      • What is a drop?
    • Measuring and weighing
      • To Tare or not to Tare?
      • Accuracy counts!
    • Calculations and results
      • Significant figures
  • Procedures will be given…will not need to memorize them step by step
day of event
Day of Event
  • Notebook (containing label) and cookies checked in by 9:00 am
  • Afternoon events similar to events in prior years but all questions based on cookies.
cookie judging
Cookie judging
  • At least 5 representative cookies must be brought for judging. Plated, bagged OK. Must be covered and sanitary.
  • Judged on appearance, flavor, texture and creativity
  • Judges will each taste cookies in event. They have right to disqualify cookie (not eat) if it doesn’t look sanitary.
  • 8% of event score
  • Website for coaches and teams:
  • E-mail specific questions
  • Carbohydrates
    • Cx(H2O)y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water
  • Basic unit – monosaccharide
  • Multiple units –
    • disaccharide (2)
    • trisaccharide (3)
    • oligosaccharide (2-10)
    • polysaccharide (>10)
  • Sugars
    • Monosaccharides
      • Glucose, Fructose
    • Disaccharides
      • Lactose (glucose and galactose) -milk
      • Maltose (glucose and glucose) -
      • Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar)


  • Examples:
    • starch - glucose polymers, found in plants
    • cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble
    • Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits
  • Branched vs. linear
    • Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides
  • Reducing sugars
    • Examples: glucose, lactose, fructose
  • Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups.
    • Example: sucrose
tests for carbohydrates
Tests for carbohydrates
  • Benedicts test for sugars
  • Iodine test for starch

Positive reaction

benedict s test
Benedict’s Test
  • The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group).  All monosaccharides are reducing sugars.  Some disaccharides are also reducing sugars.  Other disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict's solution.  Starches are also non-reducing sugars. 
  • The copper sulfate (CuSO4) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red-brown precipitate.
  • The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present if a quantitative reagent was used.
  • With increasing amounts of reducing sugar the result will be:

green yellow orange red

iodine test
Iodine Test
  • The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch.
  • Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue-black color.
  • Retrieved from ""
  • Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate)
  • Contributions to foods: texture and flavor
  • Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride
  • What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation?
  • Brown Bag Test
  • Conversion between solid structure to a liquid state is called the melting point
  • How would changing the melting point of the lipid used change the cookie texture?
  • Proteins are made up of amino acids
    • essential and nonessential
    • Contains Nitrogen
  • Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk as well as other ingredients.
  • Biuret Test
  • The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present.
  • Measure of mass per unit volume
    • Expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3)
    • dependent on temperature and pressure (PV=nRT)
    • Solids
      • may use geometry to figure out volume of sample, then weigh to find mass.
leavening agents
Leavening agents
  • Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter.
  • used to raise baked goods.
  • water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers)
  • air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes)
  • expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour
leavening agents1
Leavening agents
  • Baking soda
    • -NaHCO3
    • Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch-processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react
    • used to neutralize acids in foods
    • around 4 times as strong as baking powder
    • can cause soapy flavor in high amounts
leavening agents2
Leavening agents
  • Baking powder
    • NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch)
    • can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor
    • two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps
    • Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated
    • double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today.
where to start
Where to start?
    • Former state and regional event questions that are applicable to the new event
    • Sources for reagents and supplies
    • Information and instructions specific to the tasks and competition
time to play
Time to play!
  • Leavening agents