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EGR 1101 Unit 5. Complex Numbers in Engineering (Chapter 5 of Rattan/Klingbeil text). Mathematical Review: Complex Numbers. The system of complex numbers is based on the so-called imaginary unit , which is equal to the square root of  1 .

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egr 1101 unit 5

EGR 1101 Unit 5

Complex Numbers in Engineering

(Chapter 5 of Rattan/Klingbeil text)

mathematical review complex numbers
Mathematical Review: Complex Numbers
  • The system of complex numbers is based on the so-called imaginary unit, which is equal to the square root of 1.
  • Mathematicians use the symbol i for this number, while electrical engineers use j:

or

two uses of i and j
Two Uses of i and j
  • Don’t confuse this use of i and j with the use of and as unit vectors in the x- and y-directions (from previous week).
a unique property of j
A Unique Property of j
  • j is the only number whose reciprocal is equal to its negation:
  • Therefore, for example,
rectangular versus polar form
Rectangular versus Polar Form
  • Just as vectors can be expressed in component form or polar form, complex numbers can be expressed in rectangular form or polar form.
rectangular form
Rectangular Form
  • In rectangular form, a complex number zis written as the sum of a real parta and an imaginary partb:

z = a + ibor z = a + jb

the complex plane
The Complex Plane
  • We often represent complex numbers as points in the complex plane, with the real part plotted along the horizontal axis (or “real axis”) and the imaginary part plotted along the vertical axis (or “imaginary axis”).
polar form
Polar Form
  • In polar form, a complex number zis written as a magnitude |z| at an angle:

z = |z| 

  • The angle  is measured from the positive real axis.
converting from rectangular form to polar form
Converting from Rectangular Form to Polar Form
  • Given a complex number z with real part a and imaginary part b, its magnitude is given by and its angle is given by
converting from polar form to rectangular form
Converting from Polar Form to Rectangular Form
  • Given a complex number z with magnitude |z| and angle , its real part is given by and its imaginary part is given by
exponential form
Exponential Form
  • Complex numbers may also be written in exponential form. Think of this as a mathematically respectable version of polar form.
  • In exponential form,  should be in radians.
euler s identity
Euler’s Identity
  • The exponential form is based on Euler’s identity, which says that, for any ,
mathematical operations
Mathematical Operations
  • We’ll need to know how to perform the following operations on complex numbers:
    • Addition
    • Subtraction
    • Multiplication
    • Division
    • Complex Conjugate
addition
Addition
  • Adding complex numbers is easiest if the numbers are in rectangular form.
  • Suppose z1 = a1+jb1and z2 = a2+jb2Then z1 + z2 = (a1+a2) + j(b1+b2)
  • In words: to add two complex numbers in rectangular form, add their real parts to get the real part of the sum, and add their imaginary parts to get the imaginary part of the sum.
subtraction
Subtraction
  • Subtracting complex numbers is also easiest if the numbers are in rectangular form.
  • Suppose z1 = a1+jb1and z2 = a2+jb2Then z1  z2 = (a1a2) + j(b1b2)
  • In words: to subtract two complex numbers in rectangular form, subtract their real parts to get the real part of the result, and subtract their imaginary parts to get the imaginary part of the result.
multiplication
Multiplication
  • Multiplying complex numbers is easiest if the numbers are in polar form.
  • Suppose z1 = |z1| 1 and z2 = |z2| 2Then z1  z2 = (|z1||z2|) (1+ 2)
  • In words: to multiply two complex numbers in polar form, multiply their magnitudes to get the magnitude of the result, and add their angles to get the angle of the result.
division
Division
  • Dividing complex numbers is also easiest if the numbers are in polar form.
  • Suppose z1 = |z1| 1 and z2 = |z2| 2Then z1 ÷ z2 = (|z1|÷|z2|) (12)
  • In words: to divide two complex numbers in polar form, divide their magnitudes to get the magnitude of the result, and subtract their angles to get the angle of the result.
complex conjugate
Complex Conjugate
  • Given a complex number in rectangular form, z = a + ibits complex conjugate is simply z* = a ib
  • Given a complex number in polar form, z = |z| its complex conjugate is simply z* = |z| 
entering complex numbers in matlab
Entering Complex Numbers in MATLAB
  • Entering a number in rectangular form:>>z1 = 2+i3
  • Entering a number in polar (actually, exponential) form:>>z3 = 5exp(ipi/6)
      • You must give the angle in radians, not degrees.
operating on complex numbers in matlab
Operating on Complex Numbers in MATLAB
  • Use the usual mathematical operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division:>>z5 = z1+z2
  • >>z6 = z1*z2and so on.
built in complex functions in matlab
Built-In Complex Functions in MATLAB
  • Useful MATLAB functions:
    • real() gives a number’s real part
    • imag() gives a number’s imaginary part
    • abs() gives a number’s magnitude
    • angle() gives a number’s angle
    • conj() gives a number’s complex conjugate
this week s examples
This Week’s Examples
  • Impedance of an inductor
  • Impedance of a capacitor
  • Total impedance of a series RLC circuit
  • Current in a series RLcircuit
  • Voltage in a series RL circuit
review resistors
Review: Resistors
  • A resistor has a constant resistance (R), measured in ohms (Ω).
review inductors
Review: Inductors
  • An inductor has a constant inductance (L), measured in henries (H).
  • It also has a variable inductive reactance (XL), measured in ohms. We’ll see in a minute how to compute XL.
a new electrical component the capacitor
A New Electrical Component: The Capacitor
  • A capacitor has a constant capacitance (C), measured in farads (F).
  • It also has a variable capacitive reactance (XC), measured in ohms.
review impedance
Review: Impedance
  • Resistance (R) and reactance(X) are special cases of a quantity called impedance (Z), also measured in ohms.

Impedance (Z)

Resistance (R)

Reactance (X)

Inductive Reactance (XL)

Capacitive Reactance (XC)

reactance depends on frequency
Reactance Depends on Frequency
  • A resistor’s resistance is a constant and does not change.
  • But an inductor’s reactance or a capacitor’s reactance depends on the frequency of the current that’s passing through it.
formulas for reactance
Formulas for Reactance
  • For inductance L and frequency f, inductive reactance XL is given by:

XL = 2fL

  • For capacitance C and frequency f, capacitive reactance XC is given by:

XC= 1  (2fC)

  • As frequency increases, inductive reactance increases, but capacitive reactance decreases.
frequency angular frequency
Frequency & Angular Frequency
  • Two common ways of specifying a frequency:
    • Frequency f, measured in hertz (Hz); also called “cycles per second”.
    • Angular frequency , measured in radians per second (rad/s).
  • They’re related by the following:

 = 2f

formulas for reactance again
Formulas for Reactance (Again)
  • Using = 2f, we can rewrite the earlier formulas for reactance.
  • For inductance L and frequency f, inductive reactance XL is given by:

XL = 2fL = L

  • For capacitance C and frequency f, capacitive reactance XC is given by:

XC= 1  (2fC) = 1  (C)

total impedance
Total Impedance
  • To find total impedance of combined resistances and reactances, treat them as complex numbers (or as vectors).
    • Resistance is positive real (angle = 0).ZR= R
    • Inductive reactance is positive imaginary (angle = +90).ZL = j XL=j 2fL = j L
    • Capacitive reactance is negative imaginary (angle = −90).ZC= −j XC= −j (2fC) = −j (C)