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CNET 1101

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  1. CNET 1101 Thursday, December 2nd

  2. Microprocessor • The brain or engine of the PC • Central Processing Unit • Performance: Processor's capabilities dictate the maximum performance of a system. The other devices only allow the processor to reach its full potential. • Software Support: Newer, faster processors enable the use of the latest software.

  3. Reliability and Stability: The quality of the processor is one factor that determines how reliably your system will run. While most processors are very dependable, some are not. • Energy Consumption and Cooling: Originally processors consumed relatively little power compared to other system devices. • Motherboard Support: The processor you decide to use in your system will be a major determining factor in what sort of chipset you must use, and hence what motherboard you buy. The motherboard in turn dictates many facets of your system's capabilities and performance.

  4. Specifications • Speed • Measured in MHz (Megahertz) • Mega=1,000,000 • Hertz=Cycle per second • Megahertz=1,000,000 cycles

  5. Crystal Oscillator • A sliver of quartz in a tin container • Apply voltage to make it vibrate • Each cycle is one action • Each action needs at least one cycle

  6. Processor width • Data input and output bus • # of bits per cycle • Internal registers • How much information the CPU can use at one time • Memory address bus • Physical connection used to carry information to and from the processor

  7. Motherboards • Form Factors, identifying features • Width and length • Age of computer • Type of case • Placement of ports • Orientation of expansion slots

  8. Processor Socket • Holder for CPU • ZIF, Zero Insertion Force

  9. Chip Set • Printed circuit board to hold other IC’s • Clock generator • Bus controller • System timer • IRQ Controllers

  10. DMA Controllers • CMOS/Clock chip • North Bridge • Cache, main memory controller, interface for high speed processor and PCI, AGP • South Bridge • CMOS RAM, USB, IDE

  11. Super I/O Chips • Floppy Controller • Serial Port Controllers • Parallel Port Controllers

  12. Buses • A common pathway across which data can travel within a computer. • Between two or more computer elements

  13. System Bus • Communication between CPU and Motherboard • 66 to 100 Mhz • Memory Bus • Communication between CPU and RAM

  14. I/O Bus • ISA • Industry Standard Architecture • Most systems have them • Being replace by PCI • 8 bit, 4.77 Mhz • Some are 16 bit • Bigger than the 8 bit

  15. Expanded ISA • 32 bit • Non-standard

  16. Micro Channel Architecture • IBM’s bus • Not very common • Superior to ISA • Supports ISA cards • MCA, ISA, EISA-Slow

  17. Local Buses • Physically closer to the CPU, same as cache • On the processor bus • Faster, uses the full potential of the CPU • Many systems have both, for backward compatibility

  18. Video Electronic standard Assoc • VESA • 32 bit • 33 Mhz speed limit • Tight timing, if 33 Mhz is exceeded, data loss • Only three expansion slots • Not used, tied to the 486

  19. Peripheral Component Interconnect • PCI • 33 MHz, 32 bits • Plug and Play • Configured through software, not jumpers on the boards • Industry mainstay

  20. Accelerated Graphics Port • AGP • Video and graphic support • 66 MHz • 32 bit • 1 slot, 1 card • High speed connection to RAM

  21. System Resources • Communications channels • Address • Signals • Used to communicate along the bus

  22. Interrupts (IRQ’s) • Hardware interrupts • Signal the motherboard that the device needs a request to be filled • Wires on the motherboard and in the slot connectors

  23. IRQ’s • First systems used 8 IRQ’s • Numbered 0-7 • Lower #, higher priority • 8bit • Each device, one IRQ • One controller

  24. IRQ’s • Systems now have two controllers • Numbered 0-15 • 16 bit • Use #2 on first controller, to run 2nd controller, cascaded! • 0,1,2,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,3,4,5,6,7 • 0,1,2,8,13 used by system • 2 devices cannot use the same IRQ

  25. Direct Memory Access • DMA • A process that moves data between a device and system memory without direct control of the CPU • Used for high speed communication devices • SCSI adapter, sound card, modem, NIC

  26. DMA • Early devices • 8 bit • 4 channel • 0-3 • Only one slot available for expansion

  27. DMA • Current Configurations • 16 bit • 8 channels • 0-7 • Cascaded on 4 • 0.1.3.5.6.7 available

  28. I/O Ports • Channels for devices to communicate • 65535 channels • 0000h to ffffh (hexadecimal)

  29. Resolving Conflicts • Write down all settings • Can you change jumpers? • PnP? • Device manager • Similar Devices? • When did it start?