BBL 3221 SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN LITERATURE. MEETING 2 9.11.2013. Celery, tulips and hummingbirds. Linda Ty-Casper (Philippines). Linda ty-casper.
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BBL 3221 SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN LITERATURE MEETING 2 9.11.2013
Celery, tulips and hummingbirds Linda Ty-Casper (Philippines)
Linda ty-casper • Born as Belinda Ty in Malabon, Philippines in 1931. She spent the World War II years with her grandmother while her father worked in the Philippine National Railways, and her mother in the Bureau of Public Schools. • Her grandmother told her innumerable of stories about the Filipino’s struggle for independence, that later became the topics of her novels.
Linda Ty Casper graduated valedictorian in the University of the Philippines, and later earned her Master's degree in Harvard University for International Law. • In 1956, she married Leonard Casper, a Professor Emeritus of Boston College who is also a critic of Philippine Literature. They have two daughters and reside in Massachusetts.
Linda ty-casper • Has won PEN and UNESCO awards and the SEA WRITE Award. • Her works have been included in anthologies in Finland, Malaysia(People On the Bridge), United States and the Philippines. • She is also a board member of The Boston Authors.
Her novel Awaiting Trespass which is about the politically sensitive theme of torture by the Marcos regime was published by Readers International of London. • This work gained her major critical attention in the United States for the first time, and in Britain the novel was chosen as one of the five best works of fiction by a woman writer published in 1985-86.
Summary • The story is about a woman who is of mixed ancestry. Her father is a German while her mother is a Filipino. She reminisces her childhood and all the memories shared with her mother. Her mother told her lots of stories about life in Philippines and they even had Filipino dishes often for dinner. She recollects her memories about her uncle, Alan whom she could not contact even after the death of her parents. She visits German to see her father’s relatives but she could not cease off the memories of her uncle.
setting • Setting • Milwaukee • San Diego • German
characters • Narrator (Aline Drew Herding) • Reminisces her past • Resides in San Diego now • Misses her old home and friends • Her mother is a Filipino while her father is a German • Works at the Opera House in San Diego
Uncle (Alan) • Narrator does not know where he lived • Did not meet him after her parents’ death • Narrator thinks he is a teacher • He visits the narrator without informing them. • He has left no address for them to contact.
Narrator’s mother • Often talks about her hometown (Philippines) • Talks in Tagalog with her brother Alan • She’s a very quiet person and has very few friends. • Narrator’s father - A German who works in a leather (Rueping Brothers Leather & Co. ) where he mixes dyes for leather.
Themes • Longingness for homeland • The characters still try to use their mother tongue in their daily lives. • The narrator’s mother cooks Filipino food in order to keep up her tradition. • Nostalgia • Unable to forget their origin - Characters keep reminiscing their past
themes • Displacement • The narrator’s parents miss their homeland • They find it difficult to blend into the American community. • So, they keep to themselves.
The Wait By Vijay Lakshmi (India)
Vijay Lakshmi • Raised and educated in Jaipur, India. • Yale University as a Senior Fulbright scholar • Settled in Philadelphia • She is also a fellow at the Can Serrat International Centre for Arts in Spain.
Her Works • Novella – Pomegranate Dreams and Other Stories • Virginia Woolf as Literary Critic • Has published short stories in journal like Wasafiri (London), Orbis (London), Paris Transcontinental (Paris) and Amelia (US). • Her short story, Janaki was published in a collection, In Search of Sita.
Setting • Place - At the New Delhi American Consulate • Time – Pre- dawn • Season – Winter in India (Morning)
Winter starts in November and peaks in January, with average temperatures around 12–13 °C (54–55 °F). Although winters are generally mild, Delhi's proximity to the Himalayas results in cold waves. • Delhi is notorious for its heavy fogs during the winter season. In December, reduced visibility leads to disruption of road, air and rail traffic. • They end in early February, and are followed by a short spring hill the onset of the summer.
Style of writing • First person point of view • Descriptive - Enables the readers to imagine the place.
Visa • Visas were not generally necessary before World War I (1914–1918), but have since become standard, even while the initial fears of spying ceased with the end of the war. • Commonwealth countries normally do not issue visas, however now some of these countries have started using visas.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, lit. "paper that has been seen")is a document showing that a person is authorized to enter or leave the territory for which it was issued, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry. • The authorization may be a document, but more commonly it is a stamp endorsed in the applicant's passport (or passport-replacing document).
Some countries do not require a visa in some situations, such as a result of reciprocal treaty arrangements. • The country issuing the visa typically attaches various conditions of stay, such as the territory covered by the visa, dates of validity, period of stay, whether the visa is valid for more than one visit, etc.
A visa generally gives non-citizens clearance to enter a country and to remain there within specified constraints, such as a time frame for entry, a limit on the time spent in the country, and a prohibition against employment. • The possession of a visa is not in itself a guarantee of entry into the country that issued it, and a visa can be revoked at any time. • A visa application in advance of arrival gives the country a chance to consider the applicant's circumstance, such as financial security, reason for applying, and details of previous visits to the country.
A visitor may also be required to undergo and pass security and/or health checks upon arrival at the border. • Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter (or exit) a country, and are thus, for some countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country.
American VISA • In general, to be eligible to apply for an immigrant visa, a foreign citizen must be sponsored by a U.S. citizen relative(s), U.S. lawful permanent resident, or by a prospective employer, and be the beneficiary of an approved petition filed with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
J VISA • A J visa is a non-immigrant visa issued by the United States to exchange visitors participating in programs that promote cultural exchange, especially to obtain medical or business training within the U.S. • All applicants must meet eligibility criteria and be sponsored either by a private sector or government program.
K VISA • A K visa is a dual intent visa issued to the fiancé or fiancée of a United States citizen to enter the United States. A K visa requires a foreigner to marry his or her U.S. citizen petitioner within 90 days of entry. • Once the couple marries, the foreign citizen can adjust status to become a lawful permanent resident of the United States (Green Card holder).
Although a K visa is legally classified as a non-immigrant visa, it usually leads to important immigration benefits and is therefore often processed by the Immigrant Visa section of United States embassies and consulates worldwide. • If a K-1 visa holder does not marry his or her U.S. citizen petitioner within 90 days of entry, then he or she must depart the United States within 30 days.
H VISA • The H is a non-immigrant visa in the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 101(a)(15)(H). • It allows US employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in specialty occupations. If a foreign worker in H status quits or is dismissed from the sponsoring employer, the worker must either apply for and be granted a change of status to another non-immigrant status, find another employer (subject to application for adjustment of status and/or change of visa), or leave the US.
Characters • Nameless narrator(Mrs. Nitin) • Just got married three days ago • Brave • Has pride and dignity • Nitin • US citizen, settled in US. • Just met his spouse 10 day ago • Arranged marriage
Immigration Officers • GoroBhootni cum White Ghost • stony-faced redhead with dangling earrings • Sits at window #4 • She’s known to have rejected almost every application • Arrogant
The “advisor” • Wears a brown vest over shirtsleeves • He calls the immigration officer at Counter 4 as GoriBhootni • He knows how many visa have been rejected and by whom • He advises the young man on how to address the people at the counter
Situation in the Consulate • Tensed situation • People have to humble themselves because they are the officers’ mercy • Frightened people • Worried people • Hopeful- escaping Indian to the land of golden dreams
Another type of colonization • Indians are seen as the other • They are belittled • The officers are arrogant
Themes • Hope • Migration • Otherness
One of every five immigrants of Indian ancestry in the United States was not born in India.As a result of historical migrations, Indian-origin communities can be found throughout the world. • Among the 1,734,337 immigrants residing in the United States in 2006 who reported having Indian ancestry regardless of their place of birth, 81.2 percent were born in India.
The Indian foreign born accounted for about 4.2 percent of all lawful permanent residents living in the United States in 2006. • About 886,000 Indians have gained lawful permanent residence in the United States since 1990. • Nearly half of Indian-born lawful permanent residents in 2007 were employment-sponsored immigrants. • Indian-born lawful permanent residents accounted for 2.4 percent of all those eligible to naturalize as of 2006.
The Indian born were the fourth-largest group of student and exchange visitors admitted to the United States in 2006. • In 2006, 2.3 percent of all unauthorized immigrants in the United States were from India. • The number of unauthorized immigrants from India grew faster than the number of any other immigrant group between 2000 and 2006.