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South and SouthEast Asia. Focus of Study: Colonization and extreme weather. What is a subcontinent? It is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it. Sense of Direction…. Countries of South Asia. Countries of SouthEast Asia.

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south and southeast asia

South and SouthEast Asia

Focus of Study:

Colonization and extreme weather

What is a subcontinent?

It is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

sense of direction
Sense of Direction…

Countries of South Asia

Countries of SouthEast Asia

Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Islands, Singapore.

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives

Mount Everest is located in Nepal




south asia read textbook pages 142 157
Can you identify these locations on a map?

Himalaya Mountains, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Ganges River, Indus River.

And These?

Bangladesh- this country used to be East Pakistan but in 1971 it became its own nation.

New Delhi- New Delhi is the capital of India and seat of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India.

Rice is the most important crop

South AsiaReadtextbook pages 142-157

Effects of colonization and Religion

Islamabad- Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan. Located

within the Islamabad Capital Territory, the population of the

city has grown from 95,940 in 1951 to 805,235 as of 1998 making

it the ninth largest city in the country.

essential question how have geography colonialism and religious differences influenced this region
Essential question: how have geography, colonialism and religious differences influenced this region?

Note… Conflicts between all of these nations and groups reveal patterns rooted in economic, social, political, and territorial tensions that result in change.

India, Pakistan and Bangladesh- continued hostilities are present between India and Pakistan since the dissolution of the British Indian Empire has taken place (1947).

The Conflict Continues- Pakistan and India both claim Kashmir, a mostly Muslim territory on the border between the two countries. Both countries want to control the entire region, mainly for its vast water resources.

the history of india and pakistan
The History of India and Pakistan
  • The people of Pakistan fought British rule and independence movements arose in the late 1800s. This led to the creations of the Muslim League in 1906, whose initial goals were to guarantee rights for Muslims in a territory that was overwhelmingly Hindi. Sadly this was viewed as a threat by many Hindus and division among the people by religion began.
  • Soon division among the Muslims and Hindis in India was widening as many Muslims sought immediately independence from Britain, while many Hindus stood behind Gandhi's stance of non-violence, which required more time and patience. This difference in methodology led to the formation of Pakistan. However, the Muslim League was losing proponents among the Muslims as well, as the people were divided in opinion; some people wanted independence immediately, others supported a longer, non-violence approach, while they also argued over whether to remain with India after independence or to become a separate nation.
  • By 1940 India was at war, getting involved on the side of the Britain in World War II, and the Muslim majority in Pakistan was slowly coming to believe that no united nation was possible after independence. As WWII came to a close Britain let India go as India formed one country and Pakistan (which included modern day Bangladesh at the time) formed another country in 1947.
  • The borders were questioned so both Punjab and Bengal were divided among the two countries. This led to the movement of people: Hindus to India and Muslims to Pakistan, but this came with much violence. There was also argument over the region of Kashmir, which both countries claimed, leading to war and India eventually gaining control over the region. 1999-2014

the caste system
The caste system was a social class based on a person’s ancestry. A person was born into a particular caste. People married within their caste, and certain occupations belonged to the specific castes. People could not move from one caste to another. The caste system still influences Indian life, although laws now forbid unfair treatment of one group by another.

The caste system

India’s society

Untouchablesare outcasts—people considered too impure, too polluted, to rank as worthy beings. Prejudice defines their lives, particularly in the rural areas, where nearly three-quarters of India's people live. Untouchables are shunned, insulted, banned from temples and higher caste homes, and made to eat and drink from separate utensils in public places.

european colonization
European Colonization

The British were the last of India’s conquerors, ruling from the 1700’s to the mid-1900’s. They built roads, railroads, and seaports that benefited only the British. They also made large profits from plantations, mines, and factories that they set up.

An Indian leader named Mohandas Gandhi led a nonviolent resistance movement to free India from British rule. India won it’s independence from the British in 1947.

Muslims were afraid that their voices would not be heard by the Hindu majority. East and West Pakistan were then created, one on each side of India.

In 1971, East Pakistan became the separate nation of Bangladesh.


About 80% on India’s people are Hindus, or followers of Hinduism. Hindus honor many gods and goddesses, which are often seen as expressions of one eternal spirit. Hinduism teaches that after the body dies, the soul is reborn, often in an animal or human form.

What is REINCARNATION? the process of the soul being reborn. It is repeated until the soul reaches perfection. For this reason, many Hindus believe it is wrong to kill any living creature. Cows are believed to be sacred and roam around freely.

Islam has over 140 million followers in India. Other religions include Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Conflict sometimes occurs among members of India’s different religious groups. The Sikhs, who practice Sikhism, believe in one God as Christians and Muslims do, yet Sikhs also have other beliefs similar to Hindus. Today, many Sikhs would like to form their own independent state.


About 80% of India’s people are Hindu

hindu and islamic architecture and art
Islamic Architecture-Most Buildings have domes out of respect for one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic culture the “Dome of the Rock”.

Hindu Architecture- A small Hindu temple consists of: an inner room in which their god is housed, a congregation hall,

sometimes a porch, crowned by a tower-like structure.

Hindu and Islamic architecture and art

Islamic Art

* Painting and sculpture are NOT thought of as the best forms of art

* Calligraphy is a major art-form

* Writing is important; Books are a major art- form

* Shapes and patterns are important

* People do not appear in specifically religious art

The differences between India and Pakistan

Islamic Textile- notice the shapes and patterns

Lotus Flower

Hindu Art

* Extra Limbs-Extra limbs are seen on many of the Hindu gods in paintings and sculptures

* Lotus Flower-The lotus flower is seen constantly throughout the arts. The lotus flower represents purity & beauty

southeast asia read textbook pages 208 221
Can you identify these locations on a map?

Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Islands, Singapore.

Southeast AsiaReadtextbook pages 208-221

Extreme weather

Essential Question- How does the environment affect the people who live along the Pacific Rim and the Indian Ocean?

Did you know that Bangkok is the capital of Thailand?

extreme weather
Extreme weather

Monsoons- seasonal winds that blow over a continent for months at a time, cause the wet summers and dry winters.

Tsunamis- huge sea waves caused by under sea earthquakes that are very destructive.

Volcanoes- A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in the surface or crust of the Earth or a planetary mass object, which allows hot lava, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.

Earthquakes- An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves

Typhoons- hurricanes that occur in Asia.

“The Ring of Fire”- this is not the Johnny Cash song, this refers to an area surrounding the Pacific Ocean where the earth’s crust often shifts.

Japan’s Building Codesthe impact of extreme environmental processes is Not only in Southeast AsiaWhy is this important?

Which culture region is Japan part of?

“Japan’s Strict Building Codes Saved Lives”

Hidden inside the skeletons of high-rise towers, extra steel bracing, giant rubber pads and embedded hydraulic shock absorbers make modern Japanese buildings among the sturdiest in the world during a major earthquake. And all along the Japanese coast, tsunami warning signs, towering seawalls and well-marked escape routes offer some protection from walls of water.

These precautions, along with earthquake and tsunami drills that are routine for every Japanese citizen, show why Japan is the best-prepared country in the world for the twin disasters of earthquake and tsunami — practices that undoubtedly saved lives, though the final death toll is unknown.

In Japan, where earthquakes are far more common than they are in the United States, the building codes have long been much more stringent on specific matters like how much a building may sway during a quake.

After the Kobe earthquake in 1995, which killed about 6,000 people and injured 26,000, Japan also put enormous resources into new research on protecting structures, as well as retrofitting the country’s older and more vulnerable structures. Japan has spent billions of dollars developing the most advanced technology against earthquakes and tsunamis.

-New York Times article dated March 2011

A bus stop was crushed by part of a wall that had fallen from a nearby building in the city of Sendai, where a tsunami roared over embankments.

terracing for agriculture
Terracing for agriculture

Terraces are the product of massive highly organized human efforts. They turn mountain slopes into oversized "stair steps" of narrow fields, each held up by a retaining wall. Each step is irrigated by water transported down the mountainside from springs, rivers, or reservoirs, using a complex network of canals, sluices, and pipes. The terraces allow the hillside to be cultivated with a minimum of soil erosion; they serve to keep irrigation water on the fields.

Asia (from Fred Pearce in Eurozone)

  • Growing rice–Asia's most important crop––on hillside terraces is one of the most characteristic activities of southeastern Asia. According to the British anthropologist and traveler, John Reader, most of the continent's rice is eaten within walking distance of where it is grown. The richness and importance of this crop goes a long way to explaining the continent's high rural population. Certainly no other civilizations have proved capable of sustaining such dense populations.
  • The reason for this is fairly straightforward. While growing rice on irrigated terraces is labor-intensive, it is also highly productive. In the rich soils of islands such a Java and Bali, all part of Indonesia, the rice terraces feed upwards of a thousand people per square kilometer. The narrow paths between the terraces limit the types of farm machinery that can service the fields. Everything from tilling to harvesting must be done by hand.
  • But to achieve this high productivity with little mechanization, farmers have evolved complex and, to many eyes, regimented social structures. The needs of the individual have to be subordinated to the communal will. On a terrace system, farmers cannot grow their rice when they want. Growing has to be staggered so the water supply can be shared efficiently–so that some terraces are at the dry stage while others are being flooded. To break ranks would be disastrous.-
where do most people live
PopulationSoutheast Asia has a large population of 574,902,047 and it is growing very quickly. Indonesia, with 230 million people, is the country with the 4th highest population in the world. The other countries have much lower populations, but together, it is a lot. In general, more people live in those areas of Southeast Asia that are near water, with rivers or the ocean. Java, an island in Indonesia is one of the most densely populated islands in the world. Singapore, the smallest country in size, has the highest population density, with 6,336 people per square mile. 

The peninsula has a lot of people who live in the rural areas and work in agriculture. More of the land on the peninsula is arable, which means land that  is good for growing crops. On both the islands and the peninsula, a lot of people are moving from the country to the cities. This movement is sometimes hard because it is hard to make sure there are enough resources for all the new people, especially when the areas are poor. This movement is called urbanization. There are at least 15 cities in Southeast Asia with a population of over one million.

Where do most people live?

The coastal regions are more populated

Analyze the map above to see where most people live in Asia…