Child Care • Chapter Eleven
Objectives • Identify five areas of basic needs for which children depend on their caregivers • Give examples of three ways to childproof a home • List eleven common childhood injuries • Describe four types of substitute child care • Identify four areas in which a child has needs beyond physical needs • Explain how to guide children's behavior • Summarize how play promotes a child's development
Children's Basic Needs • A caregiver is anyone who takes care of a child • Parents often need the help of others since parenting is such a big job • Parenting is the process of caring for children and helping the grow and develop • Parenting includes providing care, guidance, and support in order to promote a child's growth and development
Meeting Basic Needs • The most basic responsibility of caring for children is meeting their physical needs: • Food - children need nutritious foods to promote or encourage healthy growth and development. • Sleep - infants and young children need more sleep than teens and adults. Getting child to sleep can be challenging. • Clothing - infants need basic garments, such as shirts, sleepers and of course, lots of diapers. • Cleanliness - infants explore their world by touching and putting objects in their mouths. Be sure to keep toys and other favorite objects clean.
Health Care • Infants need regular checkups during the first year. • Children need immunizations, which is a shot of a small amount of a dead or weakened disease carrying germ so the body may build a resistance • The disease carrying germ is called a vaccine • Health care providers can tell you what vaccines are needed at what ages.
Keeping Children Safe • To prevent injuries, follow these safety rules: • Keep small objects and all plastic bags away from babies • Never leave a baby alone on a raised surface, such as a bed, dresser, or changing table • Choose toys that age-appropriate and undamaged. Age-appropriate means it is suitable for the age and developmental needs of a child • Make sure the baby's crib and other equipment meet current safety standards
Childproofing the Home • To childproof means to take steps to protect a child from possible dangers. • You can do this by identifying potential hazards and removing them or keeping them away from children. • Put covers over electrical outlets • Install safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs • Keep scissors, matches, lighters, poisonous substances - cleaning products, paints medicines on high shelves or behind a locking door
Childproofing • Make sure there is no risk of furniture such as a dresser or a television stand of falling over • Make sure all windows that can be opened have secure screens • Move small appliances, such as the toaster and iron, out of reach. Unplug them when not in use • Teach children heaters and the stove are hot and keep handles of pots and pans turned towards the center of the stove.
Safety Away from Home • For every car journey, no matter how short, secure infants and children in approved safety seats • Never let children out of your sight in a public place, like a park • Be especially vigilant when near a swimming pool or body of water • Teach children about “stranger danger” and to never get into a car with someone they do not know
Preventing Abuse • Child abuse can take several forms, including physical, emotional and sexual • Neglect, another form of abuse, occurs when caregivers fail to meet children’s basic needs • No matter what form it takes, abuse is inexcusable and illegal • Every state has a hotline number to report suspected abuse – you can remain anonymous 1-800-442-4918 (Riverside County)
Choosing Child Care Services • In-Home Care: Parents may arrange for a caregiver to come to their home, this allows child to stay in familiar surroundings • Family Child Care: Some caregivers look after children in their own homes, children enjoy a homelike setting • Child Care Centers: Offers programs with carefully planned activities in an environment designed for children. Centers must be licensed • Before and After-School Care: Working parents of school age children may need care for a few hours before and after school. Programs might be offered by community centers or schools.
Choosing Child Care Services • Parents should ask these questions: • How many children are assigned to each caregiver? • What training and qualifications do the caregivers have? • What activities are offered? How will they benefit my child?
Reflection Part I • On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions: • Paraphrase what the term ‘parenting’ means • List three things a caregiver can do to keep a child safe outside the home. • Contrast in-home care and family child-care.
Nurturing Children • For children to develop their full potential, they also need a loving, stimulating environment • caregivers who provide for their intellectual, emotional, social and moral needs • A stimulating environment is one in which there are a wide variety of things to see, taste, touch, smell and hear.
Nurturing Children • Intellectual – Research shows importance of an environment that stimulates all five senses of brain development. • When you talk, read, play and share with children, you are helping to stimulate their intellectual development. • Emotional – All children need to feel loved an valued. They need people who will listen to them, give them smiles and hugs, cheer their accomplishments and comfort them. • Children who feel successful and loved have greater confidence and higher self-esteem
Nurturing Children • Social – Children need to learn how to make friends, get along with others and express their thoughts, feelings and desires in socially acceptable ways. • To develop these skills, they need to be around other children and guidance from their caregivers • As they learn to play with others, share and take turns, children are learning valuable life-long lessons • Moral – Children need to develop a sense of right and wrong. Consistent, loving guidance helps them do so. Basic values such as fairness and empathy are best taught by example.
Guiding Behavior • Guidance means using firmness and understanding to help children learn how to behave • Caregivers need to be patient, understanding and gentle as they guide children toward appropriate behavior
Guiding Behavior • Promote Good Behavior: • Modeling appropriate behavior is the best way to promote it in children. Responding well to a child’s good behavior encourages them to repeat it • Set Limits: • Children need to know what they may or may not do. • Although they may complain about the rules, they feel more secure when they know what is expected of them. • State limits clearly and responsibly
Guiding Behavior • Handling Misbehavior: • Redirect Behavior – With infants and toddlers, misbehavior can often be avoided or stopped by redirecting the child’s attention • Give Reminders – All children make mistakes. Reminding a child of good behavior is often all you need. • Remove Child From the Situation – Often just putting child in a time out situation gives the child a chance to calm down. • Make the punishment appropriate – if a child will not pick up his toys, it is appropriate to not allow them to play with them for an hour. It would not be appropriate to cancel a trip planned for the next week • Enforce Consequences – This can be hard for a parent, but it teaches a child that you mean what you say.
Learning Through Play • Physical Activities – like playing tag, help develop motor skills, strengthen muscles and improve coordination • Intellectual – Reading to children teaches them about letters, words and ideas. • Emotional – Play can build bonds. This boosts their self-esteem.
Types of Play • Quiet Play – Involves activities that engage the mind and use small motor skills, like using clay, puzzles or crayons. • Active Play – involves physical activities that use larger motor skills, like climbing jungle gyms, riding a tricycle or playing soccer. • Free Play – also called creative play, is a time when children can choose any safe activity they want.
How to Read to a Child 1. Choose Age-Appropriate Books – Stories should be suitable for child’s age and interests 2. Discuss the Story – talk about the pictures and how the characters may be feeling and what might happen next. 3. Have the Child Participate – Children love to turn pages, choose the books and point at pictures 4. Read it Again – Be prepared to read the same story many times, children love to hear stories over and over. 5. Let Them Read – When a child is old enough, let them read along and help them through tough words, praising them along the way.