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Artificial Intelligence and Sentient Machinery. By Nikhil Chandwani and Peter Davis. History.

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artificial intelligence and sentient machinery

Artificial Intelligence and Sentient Machinery

By Nikhil Chandwani and Peter Davis

history
History

AI is precursored by Artificial intelligence the idealism that the idea of Artificial Intelligence came in the great ancient myths, noting that Greek myths of Hephaestus and Pygmalion mentioned that certain parts were not organic and very artificial as well as “mechanic” beings. These mechanic beings were merely servants and personified as the God’s and Goddesses, “part of humanity, and part of the abyss.”

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

middle ages
Middle Ages
  • The idea of alchemy was a part of the creation of “artificial man” and making the perfect being. These were more in line with English “scientists” who would serve under the king and asked to create the “perfect being.” And since Gold was valued at such a high cost back then, it was introduced to be very popular as the “key” ingredient and solution of the artificial man.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

post middleages
Post-MiddleAges
  • Some historical Men like Leonardo Da Vinci, were convinced that the artificial man could be created, not through alchemic means, but through scientific means. Da Vinci in particular began to build and create the “robotic knight,” whose schematics show up many years later. Da Vinci’s influence starts and snowballs the idea of intelligence being controlled via tele-operated.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

20 th century
20th Century
  • 20th century: Frankenstein by Mary Shelly. comes out and creates the idea of the artificial man and mechanics working together. R.U.R. comes out and is received with positive reviews, while it introduces the idealism of great and honorable society Karel Čapek was the first to introduce the terminology of “robot” into any language.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

start of 1900s
Start of 1900s
  • The 1900s gave way to great innovations in synthetic thought and artificial intelligence. People like Isaac Asimov published the grand thesis of robotics of robotics; the Three Laws of Robotics; which define the “rules of robotics.”

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

mid 1900s
Mid 1900s
  • In the 1950s, known scientist; Alan Turing, was toying with the idea of machine intelligence along with other researchers. He came across a conundrum and asked the question; “Can machines think?” This led to an experiment in which he introduced the Turing Test; in which he posed the ideal that if a machine and continue on with a conversation through non-visionary means,

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

slide11
Cont.
  • Then in 1957, the GPS, or General Problem Solver created by Herbert Simon, J.C. Shaw, and Allen Newell came to fruition. It was made and programmed in LISP (“a practical mathematical notation for computer programs”), and could solve theorms, geometric problems, and could even play chess. Then, improvements by one, James Slagle of MIT, wrote SAINT which solved calculus problems at college levels. Both works were a precursor for the eventual SOAR system (“a general cognitive architecture for developing systems that exhibit intelligent behavior”), which has impacted the AI development community incredibly.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

slide12
Cont.
  • Next, the 60s gave birth to the mouse at SRI, a Robotic Surgical System, by one Doug Engelbart, but SRI also got to show off the first SRI robot that was not programmed via LISP; named “Shakey” which produced a robot that could combine locomotion, perception and the ability to problem solve. Then it was at this same time, that the First International Joint Conference about AI was held in the capital of the United States of America.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

slide13
70s
  • In the age of the 70s, such advancements that were seen were the development of and final product of SCHOLAR, the first intelligent tutoring system which was based on the Turing system on how it used its format for “question-basis-answer.” Don Walker and Jane Robinson improve on the code of LISP and it turns into Natural Language Processing at SRI. Later on, Bill Woods in 1972, dictated the Augmented Transition Networks for the basis of programming languages that “machines” used back then.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1970’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

70 79
70-79
  • Then, robotics came through with Terry Winograd, whose thesis was actively used to exemplify the ability of computers to understand English sentences. Later on in his life, he demonstrated this ability with SHRDLU, his programming system that understands natural language and used a robot arm that could understand English.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1970’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

slide15
80s
  • In the 1980s, the idealism of AI was very popular in most fiction, and programming began to be available commercially, like the LISP machines, which were marketed heavily. Lee Erman, Rick Hayes-Roth, Victor Lesser and Raj Reddy begin to publish the framework for the robotics speech program for computers; HEARSAY-II; which was designed to understand and filter speech. At the same time, the AAAI (American Association of Artifical Intelligence) was being held at Stanford University.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1980’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

1980s
1980s
  • Next, young computer programmer who would eventually found Thinking Machines begins to the create the gigantic architecture that would bring greater power to Artifical Intelligence research and computation. Then, as mentioned before, Paul Rosenbloom, John Laird, and Allen Newell complete SOAR, giving way to new programming, which coincidently leads to James Allen to invent the Interval Calculus, which is widely used in small programming and CPU creation.

"Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1980’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.

slide17
90s
  • In the 1990s, there is a large boom is robotics and sciences in general, but the improvements of data mining and translation are the most particular. In addition, robotic branches see success when it’s something like the Deep Blue win over Garry Kasparov, the current chess champion of that time. Then, in July 4th 1997, NASA’s pathfinder mission is the first autonomous robotics system, to land on a part of Mars. In addition, robotics begins to be geared toward education, with such programs as FIRST; promising the recognition and inspiration of science.

Lohr, Steven. "Creating Artificial Intelligence Based on The Real Thing." Nytimes.com. New York Times, 5 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/creating-artificial-intelligence-based-on-the-real-thing.html?_r=2>.

2000s
2000s
  • Finally in recent years, we have autonomous robots doing work for us (Roombas, VACS, Siri.) Roombas and VACS are robotic vacuums. Siri is the intellectual AI inside the iphone. We have smart technology which have become an essential part of business and sociological means, and that includes “Chat Robots” or chatbots, which are very popular on the World Wide Web.

Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence." RiccardoManzotti's Home Page on Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30 July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.consciousness.it/CAI/CAI.htm>.

ai and consciousness theoretical foundations and current approaches
AI and Consciousness:  Theoretical foundations and current approaches

Article Quote about Artificial Consciousness:

“In the last ten years there has been a growing interest towards the field of artificial consciousness. Several researchers, also from traditional Artificial Intelligence, addressed the hypothesis of designing and implementing models for artificial consciousness (sometimes referred to as machine consciousness or synthetic consciousness) – on one hand there is hope of being able to design a model for consciousness, on the other hand the actual implementations of such models could be helpful for understanding consciousness.

The traditional field of Artificial Intelligence is thus flanked by the seminal field of artificial or machine consciousness (sometimes machine or synthetic consciousness) aimed at reproducing the relevant features of consciousness using non biological components. According to Ricardo Sanz, there are three motivations to pursue artificial consciousness (Sanz, 2005):

1) implementing and designing machines resembling human beings (cognitive robotics);

2) understanding the nature of consciousness (cognitive science);

3) implementing and designing more efficient control systems.

The current generation of systems for man-machine interaction shows impressive performances with respect to the mechanics and the control of movements; see for example the anthropomorphic robots produced by the Japanese companies and universities. However, these robots, currently at the state of the art, present only limited capabilities of perception, reasoning and action in novel and unstructured environments. Moreover, the capabilities of user-robot interaction are standardized and well defined.

A new generation of robots and softbots aimed at interacting with humans in an unconstrained environment shall need a better awareness of their surroundings and of the relevant events, objects, and agents. In short, the new generation of robots and softbots shall need some form of “artificial consciousness”.”

Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence." RiccardoManzotti's Home Page on Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30 July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.consciousness.it/CAI/CAI.htm>.

what is artificial intelligence
What is Artificial Intelligence
  • Artificial Intelligence is the creation of systems of computers that can act, reason, and perceive information. It is an intelligent machine. It thinks, makes decisions, and solves problems all from learning and stored information. It is an interdisciplinary field that requires knowledge in computer science, linguistics, psychology, biology, and philosophy to work well.

Jaakob, Robin. "Artificial Intelligence." Intelligenceoftheworld. Artifical Intelligence, 16 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://intelligence.worldofcomputing.net/ai-introduction/artificial-intelligence-overview.html>.

kinds of ai si yi
Kinds of Ai/si/yi
  • logical AI is a program that understands general facts about different situations and is able to mathematically infer actions that are appropriate in achieving its goals. Some logical AI’s are the McC59 and McC89.
  • search is a program that examines large numbers of possibilities in a scenario. This can be used for chess games online where it searches for different possibilities for its moves.
  • pattern recognition can match a pair of eyes with a nose and recognize the face that goes with it. This can be useful for criminal departments.
  • inference is a mathematical and logical deduction that can infer things based on its previous knowledge.

McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node2.html>.

kinds of ai si vi
Kinds of AI/SI/VI
  • common sense knowledge and reasoning is a developing system of non monotonic reasoning and theories of action. Monotonic reasoning “is a property of many logical systems that states that the hypotheses of any derived fact may be freely extended with additional assumptions”. This is the farthest away from human level for an Artificial Intelligence. It also contains a bunch of common sense applications.
  • learning from experience can learn facts or behaviors they represent.
  • planning can have general knowledge about the world and develop a strategy or sequence of actions to achieve its goal with ease.
  • epistemology is a study of the kinds of knowledge to solve problems within the world.

McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node2.html>.

kinds of ai si vi1
Kinds of AI/SI/VI
  • heuristics can discover and measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal.
  • genetic programming solves tasks by using Lisp programs and mating them together.

McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node2.html>.

  • Game Playing- People can buy machines to play high level chess. For example, Deep Blue, an AI that defeated the highest ranking chess player in the world was a game playing machine. They play well because of brute force computations in their system. They look at thousands of positions before making their final move and this allows them to beat humans with ease.
  • Speech recognition- Computer speech recognition is a convenient way to get information. Chatbots can recognize human voices. This developed into Seri an iphone AI that can recognize speech that can help people look up information without having to touch the phone.

McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node3.html>.

ai vi si
AI/VI/SI
  • Heuristic classification- This type can put information in a fixed set of categories. It can advise whether or not to accept a credit card purchase based on the persons’ previous information. This can be very useful to stop identity theft and stealing.

McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node3.html>.

recent ai watson
Recent AI: Watson
  • Watson is an AI that played against humans on the show Jeopardy. Developed by IBM, Watson went on to beat Brad Rutter, the biggest all time Jeopardy winner, and Ken Jennings, the record holder for the highest win streak; 74 wins. Watson won 1 million dollars, which was all donated to charities.
  • Watson had access to 200 million pages of structure and unstructured content, consuming four terabytes of disk storage and access to Wikipedia. Watson considerably outdid his human counterparts while deciding between three answers it was given.
  • Watson has a workload optimized system that is designed for analytics and was made possible by integrating parallel power7 processors and the IBM DeepQA software to answer questions on Jeopardy in fewer than three seconds. He is made up of clusters of 90 IBM Power 750 servers and 16 Terabytes of RAM. It uses a 3.5 GHz Power7 eight core processor with four threads per core.

"Watson (computer)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_(computer)>.

the most human human
The Most human Human

http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-2011/brian-christian

Stewart, John, prod. "Brian Christian." The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. New York City, New York, 8 Mar. 2011. The Daily Show. Comedy Central, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-2011/brian-christian>.

works cited
Works Cited

Jaakob, Robin. "Artificial Intelligence." Intelligenceoftheworld. Artifical Intelligence, 16 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://intelligence.worldofcomputing.net/ai-introduction/artificial-intelligence-overview.html>.

  • Lohr, Steven. "Creating Artificial Intelligence Based on The Real Thing." Nytimes.com. New York Times, 5 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/creating-artificial-intelligence-based-on-the-real-thing.html?_r=2>.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node2.html>.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node3.html>.
  • Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence." RiccardoManzotti's Home Page on Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30 July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.consciousness.it/CAI/CAI.htm>.
  • Stewart, John, prod. "Brian Christian." The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. New York City, New York, 8 Mar. 2011. The Daily Show. Comedy Central, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-2011/brian-christian>.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1900’s-1950’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1970’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." 1980’s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence>.
  • "Watson (computer)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_(computer)>.