ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Presentation By: Tripti Negi Priyanka Kapil gogia Gurpeet Singh
Introduction • It is the branch of Computer Science concerned with making computers behave like humans. • “It is the Science and Engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs.” This term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Timeline For AI 1943 "Colossus", the first electronic computer was created 1950 The Turing Test was proposed by Alan Turing 1951 Marvin Minksy and Dean Edmonds built first neural network where the computer simulated a rat finding its way through a maze. 1958 John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded AI lab at MIT 1958 LISP developed by a team led by John McCarthy. LISP was the first non-procedural programming language which is still used for programming AI 1966 John Weizenbaum wrote a program called "Eliza". The program was like a therapist and asked questions of patients. 1969 Stanford University built a robot called "Shakey" which could recognise shapes and colours and navigate a path through coloured blocks 1970s The first expert systems appeared 1997 Super computer "Deep Blue" defeated world champion chess player Gary Kasparov 1997 First time AI system controlled a space craft "Deep Space II" late 1990s web bots and crawlers developed to give information to search engines for internet Present programmers are still trying to develop a computer which can successfully pass The Turing Test HI STORY The History of Artificial intelligence
Important people in the early study of Ai • Alan Turing • Father of modern computer science • The first computer, built in 1943, was "Colossus" • John McCarthy • -Professor of computer science at Stanford university • -Coined the term Artificial Intelligence in 1955 • -His research area has been the formalization of common sense knowledge
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? • It is a technique which focusing on creating machines that can engage in behaviors that humans consider intelligent. • After 50 years of research the dream of smart machines is gradually becoming a reality. • We are increasingly becoming more dependent on intelligent machines.
Requirements of Artificial Intelligence • Systems dependent on artificial intelligence would normally require more processing capabilities than normal systems. • Hardware • Systems require a range of sensors to receive input data from the environment • Output devices will include the normal peripheral devices such as printers , monitors but also include a range of actuators . • Robotics are used in CAM systems.
Requirement • Software • AI is dependent not only on sufficient hardware but also on the software to run the hardware • To create this software non-procedural languages are often used. These include languages such as LISP and PROLOG. • Both of these languages will actually allow the system to learn and modify its responses to its environment. Specific Requirements Models and Simulations Neural Networks
Application of Artificial Inteligence • Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys. • Many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry. • In the late 90s and early 21st century, AI technology became widely used as elements of larger systems
Finance • Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. • In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition • Medicine • Artificial neural networks are used for medical diagnosis (such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software), functioning as machine differential diagnosis. • Heavy industry • Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. • Transportation • Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles • Music The evolution of music has always been affected by technology. With AI, scientists are trying to make the computer emulate the activities of the skillful musician
Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence VISION SYSTEMS LEARNING SYSTEMS ROBOTICS EXPERT SYSTEMS NEURAL NETWORKS NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
THE FUTURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELIGENCE • In the next 10 years technologies in narrow fields such as speech recognition will continue to improve and will reach human levels. • We will recreate some parts of the human (animal) brain in silicon. There are two major projects aiming for human brain simulation, CCortex and IBM Blue Brain. • AI will be able to communicate with humans in structured English using text or voice, navigate in an prepared environment and will have some rudimentary common sense.
Impact of Artificial intelligence • Robots take over everyone's jobs • Create laziness • Expensive service
It is the science and engineering of making intelligence machine. Different scientists have different point of view for AI. The first concept of AI began with first computer. were design to solve problems. Requirement of Ai have more processing capabilities than normal system like hardware, software. AI has been use in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stop trading ,law etc In the next 10 years technologies used in narrow field such as speech recognition will continue to improve and will reach human level. The future impact of AI in humans like unemployment. Conclusion