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The Periodic Table. And it’s trends. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. Modern Russian Table. Stowe Periodic Table. A Spiral Periodic Table. “ Mayan” Periodic Table. The Periodic Table. Period. Group or Family. The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals.

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the periodic table

The Periodic Table

And it’s trends

the periodic table1
The Periodic Table

Period

Group or Family

the properties of a group the alkali metals
The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals
  • Easily lose valence electron
  • (Reducing agents)
  • React violently with water
  • Large hydration energy
  • React with halogens to form
  • salts
properties of metals
Properties of Metals
  • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
  • Metals are malleable
  • Metals are ductile
  • Metals have high tensile strength
  • Metals have luster
examples of metals
Examples of Metals

Potassium, K reacts with water and must be stored in kerosene

Copper, Cu, is a relatively soft metal, and a very good electrical conductor.

Zinc, Zn, is more stable than potassium

Mercury, Hg, is the only metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature

properties of nonmetals
Propertiesof Nonmetals

Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element.

  • Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and
  • electricity
  • Nonmetals tend to be brittle
  • Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature
examples of nonmetals
Examples of Nonmetals

Microspheres of phosphorus, P, a reactive nonmetal

Sulfur, S, was once known as “brimstone”

Graphite is not the only pure form of carbon, C. Diamond is also carbon; the color comes from impurities caught within the crystal structure

properties of metalloids
Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids straddle the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.

  • They have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
  • Metalloids are more brittle than metals, less brittle than most nonmetallic solids
  • Metalloids are semiconductors of electricity
  • Some metalloids possess metallic luster
silicon si a metalloid
Silicon, Si – A Metalloid
  • Silicon has metallic luster
  • Silicon is brittle like a nonmetal
  • Silicon is a semiconductor of electricity

Other metalloids include:

  • Boron, B
  • Germanium, Ge
  • Arsenic, As
  • Antimony, Sb
  • Tellurium, Te
slide15

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radius

  • Radius decreases across a period

Increased effective nuclear charge due

to decreased shielding

  • Radius increases down a group

Addition of principal quantum levels

ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Ionization Energy - the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
  • Increases for successive electrons taken from
  • the same atom
  • Tends to increase across a period

Cations want to lose electrons,

but anions do not.

  • Tends to decrease down a group

Outer electrons are farther from the

nucleus

electronegativity
Electronegativity

A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical

compound to attract electrons

  • Electronegativities tend to increase across
  • a period
  • - Cations don’t want elections, anions do.
  • Electronegativities tend to decrease down a
  • group or remain the same
  • - Electrons are further away from the
  • nucleus.
ionic radii
Ionic Radii
  • Positively charged ions formed when
  • an atom of a metal loses one or
  • more electrons

Cations

  • Smaller than the corresponding
  • atom
  • Negatively charged ions formed
  • when nonmetallic atoms gain one
  • or more electrons

Anions

  • Larger than the corresponding
  • atom