Absolutism. And Religious Wars. France. Problems (from about 1600) Religious Economic Weak kings (Louis XIII) Cardinal Richelieu De facto ruler Manipulated foreign affairs Suppressed the Huguenots Established central taxation Three Musketeers.
And Religious Wars
— Cardinal Richelieu
"If you give me six lines writtenby the most honest man, I will findsomething in them to hang him." —Cardinal Richelieu
Population losses in Germany
as a result of the Thirty Years War
– from Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p.xxi.