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Absolutism. Absolutism. Absolutism : -Middle Ages/renaissance-Struggle for more power -Monarchs (Kings/Queens) wanted to have absolute (all) power. . Absolutism. Divine Right : “God Given” -Monarchs would claim to be God’s representative on earth

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-Middle Ages/renaissance-Struggle for more power

-Monarchs (Kings/Queens) wanted to have absolute (all) power.


Divine Right: “God Given”

-Monarchs would claim to be God’s representative on earth

- Kings were anointed with holy water at their coronations.

-Those that rebelled against the Monarch would be considered defying and rebelling against God’s will


Bourbons of France

How do they come to power?

French Civil war

Huguenots VS. Catholics






Henry of Navarre


“Good King Henry”

-Henry IV of France

-First Bourbon king

-Instituted the Edict of Nantes in 1598

-Religious toleration of the Huguenots


Louis XIII


-Son of Henry IV

“Fils de France

Dauphin of France”

-Maria de Medici his mother (Catholic) serves as his regent

-He is only 9 years-old when he becomes king after Father is killed



Cardinal Richelieu

“Armand Jean du Plessis“ - cardinal-duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac“

-Chief Minister for Louis XIII in 1624.

(Louis became early example of Absolute Monarch)

-He is influential during this time because he controls the bureaucrats.


Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Sale of Office

Anyone who worked for the king the position or office had to be purchased. Paulette—a fee paid to keep the office holder’s position. It would remain in his family when he died.


Reduced their influence, gave them positions as diplomats, soldiers and officials


Ended their political independence and advances/loss of privileges


Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Intendants: (Sub delegates)

-Royal representatives governing each district in France

-Controlled almost every aspect of life inside of their respected district.


-Recruited people for the army

-Supervised tax collections, regulated Businesses

-Enforced the kings decrees (Watch for rebellion)

-Disliked by peasants and threatened the power of the nobles


Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

-Increased French Influence in the 30 years war. Aided Protestant Princes…to keep Holy Roman Emperor (Catholic) from becoming a major threat to the French.

-Promoted Textile industry and shipbuilding. Established Private Trading companies between France-colonies


Who is this person?

What do you think is going on in this painting?

What is the message of this painting?

Why do you think it was painted?



Louis XIV (1643-1715)

“Grand Monarch” (Grand Monarque)

He was known as the Sun King. He represented this by having coins show the rays of sun falling onto Louis and then to his subjects. This symbolized warmth and life given by the monarch.

Also was considered to be the “Center of the French Universe”, with his Glitter of lifestyle.

5 Year old King; Mother was Anne of Austria (Ruled France until Louis was of age).



-France became the greatest Power in Europe during his reign

-Imitated by many

“Imitation is considered the greatest form of flattery”


Versailles Palace



Versailles Palace


Versailles Palace

-Hunting Lodge of Louis XIII.

-Louis XIV’s court by 1680s.

-Versailles Palace was also XIV’s home.

-Located about 10 miles outside of Paris.

-It was the largest building of its day.


Louis XIV’s Absolutist Government

-The use of armed force

-More stricter intendents

-Formulation and execution of laws

-Collection and expenditure of revenue, taxation

-Kept control of important nobles by requiring constant prescience at the court in Versailles

(Lavish entertainment brought in to keep everyone amused) Most loyal were given honors and high office jobs.


Jean Baptist Colbert: Financial Advisor. Utilized the policy of…

-Mercantilism: (colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country.) A nation’s wealth was measured in its gold and silver, more exports than imports.

-Mercantilism affected the colonies such as New France (Canada) started by Henry IV


Domestic Policy:

Revoked the Edict of Nantes from 1685


To promote unity however, it had economic consequences.

(Heavy Huguenot persecution)

Result: 1 million Huguenots either leave the country or convert to Catholicism.


Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain

Charles V Ferdinand+Isabella

Holy Roman Joanna

Emperor 1519 Archduke Philip of Austria

King of Spain







Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain


Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

(1516-1556 Spain

1519-1558 HRE)

-Declared Martin Luther an Outlaw (Diet of Worms)

-Supporter and a force behind Counter Reformation

-Fought wars with France over territory in Italy

-Illness and weariness forced him to vacate the Crowns.



King Philip II of Spain


Charles V’s son

-Married Queen Mary I (England)

Henry VIII’s daughter

-Supports Catholics in

France against Henry IV

-Defeats Muslim (Ottoman navy) invasion at Lepanto

in 1571

-Defeated by the English

in 1588 invasion of England…



King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

-Originally friends with Elizabeth I (England) (Sister of Mary I)

-He facilitated her accession and

supported her against the claims of

Mary Stuart (Queen of the Scots)

-He intervened powerfully in her favor (Elizabeth) to prevent French aid from being sent to Scotland.

-With the upswing of Protestantism

relations between England and Spain

begin to turn bad



King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

So, What Went Wrong?

—Spanish ships were robbed with impunity in the English channel

—The Protestant groups in the Netherlands started to rebel in 1566

which were supported by England. Spain supported Catholics in


—In 1568, a Spanish ship docked in Plymouth and filled with pay for

the Spanish army in Flanders was seized by the English.


King Philip II of Spain VS. Queen Elizabeth I

– In the Spring of 1587, Francis Drake cruised off the coast of Spain and contrary to Elizabeth’s wishes attacked Spanish shipping, burnt the half-finished and unmanned ships at Cadiz and did enormous damage to the Spanish navy.

—The Armada left Lisbon on May 20, 1588. It consisted of 130 ships and 30, 493 men but half of the ships were transports and two-thirds of the men were soldiers. It went to the harbor of Carunna for retrofitting.

—The Armada sailed out for Flanders on July 12.

—One ship was reported captured three sank and four or five ran ashore


Peter Alexowitz (the Great)

(Czar 1682-1725)

-Curious about other lands at a young age

-Would travel in disguise to Western Europe to learn about the advancements made and return with them to Russia.

-Would impose new ways that went against tradition

the english civil war 1642 1646 1648 1649 1649 1651
The English Civil War

(1642-1646, 1648-1649, 1649-1651)

english civil war
English Civil War

August 1642-September 1649

Parliamentarians Vs. Royalists

“Roundheads” “Cavaliers”

Over 80,000 killed

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English Civil War


English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Edward VI—Henry’s 10 year old son inherited the throne. Advisors were Protestants. Thomas Cranmer was using the Book of Common Prayer. Protestant service while keeping Catholic Doctrine.


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English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Tudor wants to return England to Catholic faith. She is the younger sister of Henry VIII


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English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) (r. 1558-1603)

She was the last of the Tudors. She wasn’t married. Her Minister Robert Cecil enabled the King of Scotland, James Stuart to succeed her.



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English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Queen of Scots

A Catholic, hoped she would inherit the throne.

Elizabeth had Mary executed in 1587. She was the great grand niece of Henry VIII.



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English Civil War


The Gentry

--Newest group in society looking for respectability.

--Maintained agricultural holdings and crown offices.

--Three-quarters of the House of Commons were gentry, well educated and could approve all taxation.

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English Civil War

Causes con’t

The Debt

The war with Spain in 1588

It created an economic depression

John Stuart, King of Scotland and England left with a 400,000 debt.

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English Civil War

Causes con’t

The Puritans

Puritans were English Calvinists. They believed the Protestant Anglican church was too close to Roman Catholicism. By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book.

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English Civil War

Causes con’t

King James I (r. 1603-1625)

James VI; King of Scotland.

He was not well liked by the people of England.

He was a foreigner, Scottish and an absolutist.

Short on Money; financial restraints

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English Civil War


The Parliament showed their dislike of James I in a number of ways:

1. Forced his ministers

to resign

2. blocked the union of

England and Scotland

3. Only Anglicans allowed

to hold public office

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English Civil War

Quick Review:

-Queen Elizabeth I dies 1603: End of Tudor Family Reign

-No children; a cousin was appointed the Crown of England

-Cousin was James VI of Scotland

(James I of England)

-Hated man (Scottish, constant conflict and tension between Parliament and himself (Little respect for Parliament)

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English Civil War

Charles I (r. 1625-1649)

2nd Son of James I

-Continued to have tensions with Parliament

-Seeked out goals his father accomplished

-continued on with absolutist, divine right of rule for England

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English Civil War

During the Parliament of 1628-1629,

He agrees to Petition of Right

which grants more rights to the


End to imprisonment w/o cause

End to martial law in peacetime

End to billeting of troops among


Taxation w/o consent of

Parliament (James VI would constantly do this, Petition would limit his son from doing it ever again.



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English Civil War

English Civil War

Causes of the English Civil War


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English Civil War

-Charles I agrees to the Petition of Right but breaks his word on all the issues.

-He orders Parliament dissolved until 1640due to breaking word on Petition of Rights as well as the discovery of the Star Chamber: A secret court were Charles would arrested and have people tried without Parliament’s knowledge.

-11 years Charles ruled without any type of check and balance. Absolute rule.

-Would often reactivate old taxation laws and fines/fees to keep money flow into England (shipping taxes, Knighthood fees)

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English Civil War

By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book.

By 1640, the Scots occupy most of northern England. Charles I then approaches Parliament to raise money to fight the Scots.

Charles I starts the Long Parliament which lasts for 13 years.

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English Civil War

English Civil War starts in 1642

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English Civil War

Second English Civil War 1648-1649

-Two years after the defeat in the First Civil War, Charles I took up arms and attempted to use force to retake what was his

-Political agreement could not be reached

-Despite being captive, secret agreements between Charles and the Scots lead to the Scots invading England again. Turned away shortly after

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English Civil War

What happens to Charles I?

-Parliament begins decision to end the reign of Charles I

He was put on Trial for Treason in 1649

He was later found guilty, and convicted

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English Civil War

What happens to Charles I?

Punishment? Executed


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English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Ruled England from 1649 to 1660 (Interregnum)

-1649-1651 Continued to regain English control over Ireland, and Scotland

-England is a republic at this time (Commonwealth)

-Becomes a dictator in 1654: “Lord protector of England”

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English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Dissolved Parliament twice due to lack of reforms.

-Ends the Long Parliament in 1653 (started by Charles I)

offers him the crown in 1656 but refused

-1657 England’s first constitution “Instrument of England” is written, only to be scrapped


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English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Killed many Irish over the belief that many English settlers were killed in Ireland in 1641, **Still a horror filled memory to this day**

-Allowed all types of religion to practice except Catholicism

-Banned all type of criticism via publication

-Shut down all types of entertainment/amusement

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English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Clamped down on (limited) the celebration of Christmas and other Saint and Holy days during his reign

-Dies of a Malarial-type of disease

-His son alienated both the army and Parliament in effort to succeed his father

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English Civil War

Richard Cromwell

-Third (eldest) surviving Son of Oliver

-Served nine month reign (1658-1659)

-Controversy as to whether or not Oliver named him successor, or his Son in Law Charles Fleetwood

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English Civil War

Richard Cromwell

-Left with £2 million Debt

-questioned as capable leader due to lack of military experience

-No strength/unity between the Army, Parliament, and Cromwell

-Could not control either side

-Parliament forces Cromwell to resign, appoints new Council to govern England

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English Civil War


-Since 1658 (Cromwell’s death) Parliament once again had the most power-But English people still wanted a king to rule.

Charles II (r. 1660-1685)

Charles I son


He forms a limited monarchy,(the king and Parliament share power)

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English Civil War


-Most of Cromwell’s actions are reversed (Amusement/entertainment)

-Things were less severe in comparison to Cromwell’s reign

Habeas Corpus Act passed by Parliament

(A person who was arrested could obtain an order demanding to be taken in front of a judge within a certain amount of time. Judge would decide whether person is tried for crime or released)

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English Civil War

-After his death James II (1633-1701), Charles I second son and younger brother of Charles II

-Rules from 1685-1688.

He is Catholic and his second wife has a son who is also Catholic.

-Parliament dislikes him but nevertheless supports him.

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English Civil War

-Despite the Catholic faith, his daughters married protestant princes, parliament accepts and believes the crown will continue to be upheld by Protestant faith


-A catholic son was born in 1688-trumping the line of age to be the heir successor to the throne

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English Civil War


Why is this an issue and how is it resolved?

Glorious Revolution 1688

No Fighting or Bloodshed needed

How so?

-Parliament invites older Protestant Daughter Mary and husband to rule England

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English Civil War


William and Mary

William of Orange from the Netherlands and

Mary, James’s Protestant daughter accept the offer to take up the crown and rule England.

William, with army, march on London. James II flees to France.

William III and Mary II officially begin rule in 1689

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English Civil War


William and Mary

William of Orange from the Netherlands and

Mary, James’s Protestant daughter accept the offer to take up the crown and rule England.

William, with army, march on London. James II flees to France.

William III and Mary II officially begin rule in 1689

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English Civil War


William and Mary

Glorious Revolution ends Absolute Monarchy in England