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Endocrine Glands. Hypothalamus Pituitary Anterior lobe Posterior lobe Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal Glands Cortex Medulla. Islets of Langerhans Gonads Ovaries Testes Pineal gland Thymus others . Endocrine Glands. Hormonal Communication. Hypothalamus. Part of brain

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endocrine glands3


Anterior lobe

Posterior lobe

Thyroid gland

Parathyroid glands

Adrenal Glands



Islets of Langerhans




Pineal gland



Endocrine Glands

Hormonal Communication

  • Part of brain
    • Regulates ANS, emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst, body temperature, etc.
    • Hormones related to these functions
      • “Releasing hormones”
      • Axonal transport to posterior lobe
anterior pituitary
Anterior Pituitary
  • “Releasing” hormones regulate AP aka

adeno hypo physis“glands”“under” “growth”

  • All proteins
    • TSH (thryoid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin)
    • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • FSH (gonadotropin)
    • LH (gonadotropin)
      • Tropins/tropic hormones
    • GH (growth hormone)
    • Prolactin-releasing H

Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis Animation : IP Web

anterior p homeostatic imbalances
Anterior P. Homeostatic Imbalances

Growth hormone (GH or hGH)

  • Promotes mitosis, cell division
  • Elongation of long bones, etc.
  • Healing of wounds Lack of hGH retards growth
  • Hypersecretion in youth produces giantism
  • Hyposecretion in childhood produces pituitary dwarfism
  • Hypersecretion in adult produces acromegaly
posterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary
  • Axonal transport to Posterior Pituitary aka

neuro hypo physis

“nerve”“under” “growth”

  • Hypothalamic cell bodies synthesize
    • oxytocin
    • ADH
pituitary posterior lobe
Pituitary—Posterior lobe
  • Oxytocin
    • Stimulates smooth muscle contraction of uterus & mammary glands.
  • Antidiuretic H.
    • Stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts.
    • Stimulates vasoconstriction (vasopressin)
    • Lack  diabetes insipidus
posterior pituitary homeostatic imbalances
Posterior Pituitary Homeostatic Imbalances


  • Hyposecretion produces diabetes insipidus “tasteless”
  • Excessive thirst and urination
    • central or neurogenic DI
    • gestagenic orgestational DI
    • nephrogenic DI
    • dipsogenic DI

Diabetes Insipidus Foundation, Inc.

thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland
  • Location in neck
    • Inferior to larynx
    • Anterior & lateral to trachea
  • Composed of follicles
    • Follicle cells produce thyroglobulin
      • Thyroxin (T4)
      • Triiodothyronine (T3)
        • Both “thyroid hormone”, body’s major metabolic hormone
  • Parafollicular/ C cells
      • Calcitonin
        • Decreases blood Ca2+ by depositing it in bones
homeostatic imbalances
Homeostatic imbalances
  • Hypothyroidism results
    • Myxedema (in adults)
    • Goiter—low levels of iodine
    • Cretinism (in children)
  • Hyperthyroidism results
    • Graves disease
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Glands
  • Four small glands embedded in posterior of thyroid
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • Stimulates osteoclasts to free Ca2+ from bone
    • Stimulates Ca2+ uptake from intestine & kindey

Hormonal Regulation of Calcium

parathyroid homeostatic imbalances
Parathyroid Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Severe hyperparathyroidism causes massive bone destruction
  • If blood Ca2+ fall too low, neurons become overactive, resulting in tetany

Feedback Loop

  • Negative feedback in calcium homeostasis. A rise in blood Ca2+ causes release of calcitonin from the thyroid gland, promoting Ca2+ deposition in bone and reducing reabsorption in kidneys.
  • A drop in blood Ca2+ causes the parathyroid gland to produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), stimulating the release of Ca2+ from bone.
  • PTH also promotes reabsorption of Ca2+ in kidneys and uptake of Ca2+ in intestines.
adrenal glands
Adrenal Glands

One on top of each kidney

  • Cortex
    • Corticosteroid
    • glandular
  • Medulla
    • Catecholamines
    • neurohormonal
      • Epinephrine
      • Norepinephrine
adrenal cortex
Adrenal Cortex
  • Cortex
    • Activity stimulated by ACTH
    • Controls prolonged responses by secreting corticosteroids.
    • Mineralcorticoids
      • Aldosterone regulate salt and water balance
    • Glucocorticoids
      • Cortisol regulate glucose metabolism and the immune system.
    • Gonadocorticoids
      • Androgens
      • Estrogens
adrenal cortex imbalances
Adrenal Cortex Imbalances
  • Hypersecretion leads to Cushing’s disease
    • ACTH-releasing tumors or side effects of corticoid drugs.
  • Hyposecretion leads to Addison’s Disease
    • Deficits in glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
adrenal medulla
Adrenal Medulla
  • Medulla
    • The adrenal medulla mediates short–term responses by secreting catecholamine hormones.
    • Cells are modified neurons (lack axons)
      • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
      • Norepinephrine (noreadrenaline)
        • enable a rapid ( fight-or-flight ) responses to stress by increasing blood glucose and blood pressure and directing blood to the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles.
  • Consists of two major types of secretory tissues which reflects its dual function
    • Exocrine gland
      • secretes digestive juice
      • localized in the acinar cells
    • Endocrine gland
      • releases hormones
      • localized in the islet cells (islets of Langerhans)
pancreatic islets
Pancreatic Islets
  • “About a million” embedded in pancreas
  • Control centers for blood glucose
    • Insulin from beta cells
    • Glucagon from alpha cells
islets of langerhans
Islets of Langerhans
  • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake, glycogenesis
  • Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, glucose release from liver (vs gluconeogenesis)

Feedback Loop

  • A rise in blood glucose causes release of insulin from beta cells the pancreas, promoting glucose uptake in cells and storage as glycogen in the liver.
  • A fall in blood glucose stimulates alpha cells in the pancreas to secrete glucagon, which causes the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose.
pancreas homeostatic imbalances diabetes siphon mellitus mel honey
Pancreas Homeostatic ImbalancesDiabetes “siphon” mellitus mel= “honey”
  • Symptoms:
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia
  • Polyphagia

Blood Level Regulation in Diabetics

  • Ovaries
    • Estrogens
    • Progesterone
  • Testes
    • Testosterone
  • Reproductive functions when we study reproductive system.
pineal gland
Pineal gland
  • Melatonin
    • ? Inhibits early puberty
    • ? Day/night cycles
      • Timing of sleep, body temperature, appetite
  • Secretes melatonin during darkness
    • Participates in setting the body’s clock
  • Melatonin is a potent antioxidant
  • Melatonin is high when young and is reduced as we age
  • Thymus gland
  • Thymopoietins, thymic factor, thymosins
    • Influence development of T lymphocytes
non endocrine gland hormones
Non-Endocrine Gland Hormones
  • Stomach (gastrin)
  • Small intestine (duodenumintesetinal gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin)
  • Heart (atrial natriuretic peptide)
  • Kidneys (erythropoietin, active vitamin D3)
  • Adipose tissue (leptid, resistin)
  • Skin
  • Placenta (human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, relaxin)
functions regulated by the endocrine system
Functions regulated by the Endocrine System



Water balance & Blood Pressure

Calcium Metabolism

Energy Metabolism


Regulation of other Endocrine Organs


Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Human growth hormone (hGH)

Thyrotropin (TSH)

Thyroxine & triiodothyronine


Somatostatin (GHIH)


Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Human growth hormone (hGH)

Thyrotropin (TSH)

Thyroxine & triiodothyronine


Glucagon, Insulin


water balance blood pressure
Water balance & Blood pressure



Angiotensin II

Atrial natriuretic H.


calcium metabolism
Calcium Metabolism


Parathyroid H. (PTH)


Growth hormone

energy metabolism
Energy Metabolism

Thyroxine & triiodothyronine

Thyroid-stimulating H. (thyrotropin, TSH)

Epinephrine & norepinephrine



Adrenocorticotropic H. (ACTH)



Epinephrine & norepinephrine

T4 &T3 ??