The endocrine glands
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The Endocrine Glands. SBI 4U January 10 th , 2013. Answer the Following Questions!. Protein hormones are hydrophilic. True False What are prohormones ? How are hormones different from local regulators?. What is the Endocrine System?.

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The endocrine glands

The Endocrine Glands


January 10th, 2013

Answer the following questions
Answer the Following Questions!

  • Protein hormones are hydrophilic. True False

  • What are prohormones?

  • How are hormones different from local regulators?

What is the endocrine system
What is the Endocrine System?

  • The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones

  • Hormones regulate body’s growth, metabolism and sexual development and function

  • In charge of body processes that happen slowly

Water vs lipid soluble mechanisms
Water vs. Lipid-soluble Mechanisms

  • Single target cell may have receptors for several hormones. Ex: liver cells (insulin & glucagon)

  • Hormones can interact with different types of receptors in a host of cells

Mechanisms by which hormones work
Mechanisms by which hormones work

  • Only cells with receptors respond to hormones

  • Once bound to receptors, hormones produce response by inactivating or activating cellular processes

  • Hormones effective in very small concentrations

  • Response to a hormone differs among target organs and among species

Hormones as feedback mechanisms
Hormones as Feedback Mechanisms

  • Secretion of most hormones as a result of negative feedback mechanisms

  • Ex: hypothalamus  thyroid releasing hormone  triggers pituitary gland to release TSH  triggering thyroid to release thyroid hormones. Where is the negative feedback?

The endocrine glands1
The Endocrine Glands

  • Hypothalamus

  • Anterior Pituitary and Posterior Pituitary

  • Adrenal glands

  • Ovaries

  • Testes

  • Pineal gland

  • Thyroid gland

  • Parathyroid glands


  • Hypothalamus is a region of the brain  also a part of the nervous system

  • Neurohormones: control production of other hormones in pituitary gland

  • 2 types of neurohormones: releasing hormones & inhibiting hormones

  • Controlled by input from nervous system

Pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland

  • Pituitary gland: 2-lobed gland within the cranial cavity that produces hormones that control the other endocrine glands

  • “Master gland”  production of hormones controlling most endocrine glands

  • Located below brain, within the cranium

  • Anterior lobe & posterior lobe

  • Neurohormones travel through portal vein  connecting hypothalamus to pituitary gland

Anterior pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland

  • Endocrine system largely controlled by the anterior pituitary hormones, which are controlled by the hypothalamus inhibiting or releasing hormones

  • Regulator hormones like ‘thyroid stimulating hormone’

  • Ex: Growth hormone (GH)

  • GH  cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

  • GH binds to muscle, causing the release of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)

  • GH also maintains availability of glucose and fatty acids

Deficiencies in gh overproduction of gh
Deficiencies in GH Overproduction of GH

  • GH binds to muscle, causing the release of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)

  • GH also maintains availability of glucose and fatty acids

  • Overproduction of GH: pituitary giant

  • Deficiency of GH: pituitary dwarf

Posterior pituitary gland
Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Stores and released 2 hormones: antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin (both produced in hypothalamus)

  • ADH: stimulates kidney cells to absorb more water from urine, increases blood volume

  • Ethanol and caffeine inhibit ADH

  • Nicotine and stress stimulate ADH

  • ADH helps maintain blood pressure by reducing water loss

Posterior pituitary gland1
Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Oxytocin stimulates release of milk from mammary glands

  • Also helps in the stimulation of contractions during childbirth