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Population Ecology

Population Ecology

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Population Ecology

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  1. Population Ecology

  2. The branches of ecology Population statics Density Distribution Population dynamics Natality Mortality Survivorship curves Life history strategy Age structures Population models Exponential growth Logistic growth The human population Population Ecology

  3. Almost every population distribution in nature is clumped. Life history strategies are a series of tradeoffs that maximize the net reproductive rate. Exponential growth is growth at a constant rate, and therefore is rare. Human populations increase as they move through the demographic transition. Human total fertility is falling. Good or bad news? Major Ideas

  4. Random, Clumped, Regular

  5. Bluestripe Snappers

  6. Bluestripe Snappers

  7. Early Spring, GSMNP

  8. GSMNP, West-Facing Slope

  9. Each Dot = 100,000 People

  10. Each Dot = 100,000 People

  11. Albatross, Falkland Islands

  12. Albatross, Falkland Islands

  13. Metapopulations

  14. Decline of European Cod

  15. Crash of Newfoundland Cod

  16. Crash of Haddock Off New England

  17. The “Great Dying,” Mexico

  18. Some African Life Expectancies

  19. Survivorship Curves

  20. Herring Gull Survivorship Curve

  21. Gray Squirrel Life Table

  22. Undevel, Devel Age Structures

  23. Bird Life History Strategy

  24. Bird Life History Strategy

  25. Bird Life History Strategy

  26. Bird Life History Strategy

  27. Nonrepro-ductive Agave

  28. Flowering Agave

  29. Puya raimondi, Semelparous Bromelidad, Bolivia

  30. Life History Strategy of Phlox

  31. Exponential Growth Growth rate (r), or rate of change of a population on a per capita basis, is the birth rate minus the death rate: r = b − d The instantaneous growth rate, dN/dt, can be expressed as: dN/dt = rN

  32. Exponential Growth

  33. Beetle Survival vs. Density?

  34. Beetle Survival vs. Density?

  35. From Exponential to Logistic dN/dt = rN The logistic equation takes into account the carrying capacity of the environment: dN/dt = rN [(K − N)/K] The element [(K − N)/K] reflects decline in growth as population size approaches its carrying capacity

  36. Logistic Growth Curve Carrying capacity of the environment (K) Number of individuals (N) Time

  37. Isle Royale, L. Superior

  38. Human Population to 2009

  39. Demographic Transition in Mexico

  40. Sweden and Mexico DTs

  41. Causes of Death in China

  42. Sex Ratio in ChinaWorld Average at Birth = 107

  43. Fertility Declines

  44. Declines in Fertility, 1950-2008

  45. Fertility Range, 2004

  46. Undevel, Devel Age Structures

  47. Sweden, 1900-2050

  48. 1997 vs. 2025

  49. Old-Age Dependency Rising