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On the way to revolution. APUSH MRs Murphy. Mercantilism: The Theory. Government goal = to gain wealth (gold and silver, resources) for their country. There is a fixed amount of wealth in the world (only so much gold and silver).

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on the way to revolution

On the way to revolution

APUSH MRs Murphy

mercantilism the theory
Mercantilism: The Theory
  • Government goal = to gain wealth (gold and silver, resources) for their country.
  • There is a fixed amount of wealth in the world (only so much gold and silver).
  • To get more wealth you need to get it from another country by selling goods or taking over weaker countries.
mercantilism and colonies
Mercantilism and Colonies
  • Mother countries – get all the benefits from colonies
  • Sell manufactured goods to colonies who are not allowed to produce them
  • Take all the raw materials out of the country to make industrial goods
  • Colonies – best markets & customers
english mercantilism
English Mercantilism
  • Navigation Acts
    • American colonies may only ship their goods on English ships with English merchants
    • American colonies may not buy or sell goods to or from foreign powers
    • All American goods will be shipped through English ports
english trade monopoly
English Trade Monopoly
  • All money goes to England
  • However, England was in several wars and did not enforce the Navigation Act
  • American merchants (smugglers) sold goods to the West Indies and beyond
american manufacturing
American Manufacturing
  • It was limited – but it did exist
  • British did not want competition and tried to keep hats, iron, other goods from being made.
  • Not totally enforced.
albany conference
Albany Conference
  • Join colonies for defense with Iroquois against other tribes
  • 7 colonies meet – Ben Franklin’s idea He suggests a joint governing board and a union for defense
  • Colonies choose not to join & Great Britain not for it
french and indian war 1754 63
French and Indian War 1754-63
  • Global war
  • Constant tension between Great Britain and France
  • French colonies and control of rivers & water (Mississippi, St Lawrence, Great Lakes)
  • Disputed area along the Ohio River Valley – claimed by Virginia & French
french and indian war
French and Indian War
  • Begins in the colonies not in Europe over a problem Washington had with the French
  • He builds a fort as he felt they were on Virginia’s land
  • A French diplomat is killed by Washington’s Indian Allies – starts the war.
american colonists fight
American Colonists Fight
  • Militias – casual groups – no real army discipline as they are friends from a certain colony
  • They felt they fought Indians better than the British who always fought formally as they did in Europe (not like guerilla war tactics of Indians)
british subsidize militias
British Subsidize Militias
  • Colonies were more willing to provide soldiers once Great Britain subsidized militia.
  • British officers looked down on the militia or anything American and did not give people credit where credit is due
  • Dislike and resentment of British starts with condescending army in colonies
british win the war
British win the war
  • France loses their North American colonies except a few islands in the Caribbean
  • Spain gains Louisiana from France
  • England gains Canada
  • English decide to change how they rule in America
england in debt after war
England in Debt After War
  • English feel colonists should pay for war debt as war was fought in North America
  • Colonists are not taxes as much as English citizens in England – so this seems fair
  • Salutary Neglect – England was busy in wars and did not enforce laws in colonies for 60 years – colonists used to self government
english change rule
English Change Rule
  • Decide to enforce old laws
  • Navigation Acts – put American merchants out of business (so they smuggle)
  • Start a series of taxes in the colonies which irritate the colonist who feel they are Englishmen and should not be taxed unless they vote to tax themselves
english totally out of sync with american views
English totally out of sync with American views
  • Proclamation of 1763 prohibits colonists from moving west –
  • Colonists need more land and fight the Indians over it
  • British do not want to pay for wars with Indians
  • Irritates colonists
stamp act 1765
Stamp Act 1765
  • Pay for stamps attached to all paper goods – legal papers, newspapers, playing cards, dice.
  • James Otis argues that this is not legal as this is taxation without representation
  • England says Parliament is “virtually” representing the colonies.
self rule
Self Rule
  • Colonists used to self rule
  • All had legislatures – New England voted them in, in some Southern colonies appointed – Virginia’s House of Burgesses – held by wealthy Virginia families
  • White males in charge – land owners
  • All legislatures had voted to tax colonies when needed but they were real representatives of the colonists and could be removed by the colonists
stamp act congress oct 1765
Stamp Act Congress Oct 1765
  • 9 colonies work together against Stamp Act
  • Some Tax Collectors “Persuaded” not to collect taxes (by tar and feathers)
  • Boycott of British goods ( will not buy) – merchants in London push Parliament to take tax away
stamp act repealed
Stamp Act repealed
  • Parliament passes Declaratory Act saying they have the right to rule and tax their colonies.