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Unit 5: States of Consciousness

Unit 5: States of Consciousness

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Unit 5: States of Consciousness

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  1. Unit 5:States of Consciousness

  2. Chapter Overview • Sleep and Dreams • Hypnosis • Drugs and Consciousness

  3. Introduction • Consciousness • States of consciousness • Sleep • Wake • Altered states

  4. States of Consciousness

  5. Sleep and Dreams

  6. Biological Rhythms and SleepCircadian Rhythm • Circadian rhythm • 24 hour cycle • Temperature changes • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) • melatonin

  7. Biological Rhythms and SleepCircadian Rhythm

  8. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages • Stages of sleep • Awake • Alpha waves • Stage 1 • Sleep • Hallucinations • Hypnagogic sensations

  9. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages • Stages of sleep • Stage 2 • Sleep spindles • Stage 3 • Stage 4 • Delta waves • REM sleep

  10. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages

  11. Why Do We Sleep? • Variations in sleeping patterns • Cultural influences • Sleep debt

  12. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  13. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  14. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss • US Navy and NIH studies • Chronic sleep loss • Spring and fall time changes

  15. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  16. Why Do We Sleep?Sleep Theories • Sleep theories • Sleep protects • Sleep helps recuperation • Memory storage • Sleep and creative thinking • Sleep and growth

  17. Larks or Owls • Handout 5 -5 • For questions 1, 2, 10, and 18: use the numbers below the time lines to calculate your score • For the remaining questions, the appropriate score for each response is displayed beside the answer box

  18. Sleep Disorders • Sleep disorders • Insomnia • Narcolepsy • Sleep apnea • Night terrors • Sleepwalking/ sleeptalking

  19. DreamsWhat We Dream • Dreams • Manifest content • Latent content

  20. DreamsWhy We Dream • To satisfy our own wishes • To file away memories • To make sense of neural static • To reflect cognitive development • REM rebound

  21. A Lifetime of Sleep

  22. Critical Considerations: Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.

  23. Hypnosis

  24. Facts and Falsehoods • Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis? • Postural sway • Susceptibility • Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? • Age regression

  25. Facts and Falsehoods • Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against Their Will? • Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? • Hypnotherapists • Posthypnotic suggestion • Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain?

  26. Levels of Analysis for Hypnosis

  27. Drugs and Consciousness

  28. Introduction • Psychoactive drugs

  29. Dependence and Addiction • Tolerance • Withdrawal • Dependence • Physical dependence • Psychological dependence

  30. Dependence and AddictionMisconceptions About Addiction • Addiction • Myths • Addictive drugs quickly corrupt • Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily without therapy • The concept of addiction applies to all pleasure-seeking behaviors

  31. Psychoactive Drugs • Three types of psychoactive drugs • Depressants • Stimulants • Hallucinogens

  32. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants • Depressants • Alcohol • Barbiturates (tranquilizers) • Opiates

  33. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants - Alcohol • Disinhibition • Slowed neural processing • Memory disruption • Reduced self-awareness and self-control • Expectancy effects

  34. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants – Barbiturates and Opiates • Barbiturate (tranquilizers) • Opiates • Endorphins

  35. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants • Introduction • Stimulants • Amphetamines • Methamphetamine (speed) • Crystal meth • Caffeine

  36. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants • Nicotine • Cocaine • Crack • Ecstasy • MDMA

  37. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants - Nicotine

  38. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants - Cocaine

  39. Psychoactive DrugsHallucinogens • Hallucinogens (psychedelics) • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Acid • Near-death experience • Marijuana • THC

  40. Influences of Drug Use • Biological Influences • Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences

  41. Psychoactive Drugs

  42. Levels of Analysis for Drug Use

  43. The End

  44. BECAUSE MS. DUCO LOVES YOU Definition Slides

  45. Consciousness = an awareness of ourselves and our environment.

  46. Circadian Rhythm = the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

  47. REM Sleep = rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep state during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

  48. Alpha Waves = the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

  49. Sleep = periodic, natural loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

  50. Hallucinations = false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.