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PROPOSALS and PERSUASION. A Guide for Creating Effective Proposals Based on Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered Approach , 5 th ed. 2003 (533-553) and Markel, Mike. Technical Communication, 6 th ed. 2001. (483-515). Proposal.

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proposals and persuasion

PROPOSALS and PERSUASION

A Guide for Creating Effective Proposals

Based on Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered Approach, 5th ed. 2003 (533-553) and Markel, Mike. Technical Communication, 6th ed. 2001. (483-515).

proposal
Proposal
  • “A proposal is an offer to carry out research or to provide a product or service” (Markel 483).
types of proposals
Types of Proposals
  • Internal
    • A request to carry out a plan within an organization (Markel 484)
  • External
    • Solicited
    • Unsolicited
deliverables
Deliverables
  • What will the proposal deliver to the client?
    • A request to research will deliver information about a problem
    • A request to provide goods or services will meet a client’s need for those products
proposal elements
Proposal Elements
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Problem Statement
  • Proposed Program
  • Qualification and experience
  • Budget
  • Conclusion
proposal elements1
Proposal Elements
  • Summary
    • A summary provides an overview of the proposal’s contents
  • Introduction
    • “The purpose of the introduction is to help the reader understand the context, scope, and organization of the proposal” (Markel 494)
proposal elements2
Proposal Elements
  • Problem Statement
    • What is the problem?
    • Who is this a problem for?
    • Why is this problem important to your target audience?
proposal elements3
Proposal Elements
  • Proposed Program
    • What exactly do you propose to do?
    • How do your goals/objectives create a solution to your problem/project?
    • How do you plan to do those things? What method will you use?
proposal elements4
Proposal Elements
  • Qualifications and experience
    • Are you qualified to undertake this project?
    • How?
proposal elements5
Proposal Elements
  • Budget
    • What will it cost to propose this project?
    • What will it cost to implement this proposal? (Do you need to estimate this in the proposal?)
    • How will you explain and justify these costs?
proposal superstructure
Proposal Superstructure
  • Introduction
  • Problem
  • Objectives, Product
  • Method, Resources, Time Schedule, Qualifications, Management
  • Costs
  • Conclusion
proposal superstructure1
Proposal Superstructure
  • Introduction
    • Tell your readers what you are asking to do
  • Problem
    • Provide background to the problem
    • Include a specific problem statement
    • Implications if problem remains unresolved
proposal superstructure2
Proposal Superstructure
  • Criteria
    • Provide features of a successful solution
    • State specific objectives of your project
    • Show how the objectives tie-in to the problem statement
proposal superstructure3
Proposal Superstructure
  • Product
    • Provide a plan for achieving objectives
    • Demonstrate through detail your proposed plan
    • Use persuasion to “sell” your idea
proposal superstructure4
Proposal Superstructure
  • Methodology
    • Show audience your plan for this project
  • Resources
    • Describe what resources you will use (library, computer labs, ...)
proposal superstructure5
Proposal Superstructure
  • Qualifications
    • Describe how you are qualified to complete this project
      • Education
      • Experience
proposal superstructure6
Proposal Superstructure
  • Budget
    • Provide detail of costs to propose
    • Provide costs to implement (if applicable)
proposal superstructure7
Proposal Superstructure
  • Conclusion
    • Restate problem briefly
    • Restate objectives
    • Restate request to work on this project
persuasion
Persuasion
  • A proposal is a persuasive document (see Anderson 534).
  • To be successful writers must do three things
    • Demonstrate they understand the readers’ needs
    • Convince the reader that they are able and willing to fulfill their own promises
persuasion1
Persuasion
  • Emphasize Benefits for your Readers
    • Cost Benefits
    • Time-Saving Measures
    • Labor-Saving Devices
    • Improve Public Relations
persuasion2
Persuasion
  • Target Readers’ Concerns and Objections
    • Look at proposal from readers’ viewpoint
    • Provide details your audience needs
    • Anticipate possible objections
    • Counter those objections with strong arguments
persuasion3
Persuasion
  • Demonstrate Sound Reasoning
    • Use a logical organization
    • Support all claims with reliable evidence
persuasion4
Persuasion
  • Use Organization to Create a Favorable Response
    • Direct Pattern
      • State main point directly
    • Indirect Pattern
      • Holds off main point for the end
  • Organization depends on purpose and audience
proposals and persuasion1
Proposals and Persuasion
  • Each section of the proposal must be informative as well as persuasive
  • Keep audience in mind throughout all sections
  • Successful proposals “sell” ideas