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The Raven

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The Raven

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  1. The Raven • Vocabulary You need to know...

  2. Things to Remember • Edgar Allen Poe likes to use multiple definitions of a word at one time. So, be looking for how each meaning can fit into the poem.

  3. Lore: stanza one • lore 1 |lôr| • noun • a body of traditions and knowledge on a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from person to person by word of mouth : the jinns of Arabian lore | baseball lore. • ORIGIN Old English lār [instruction,] of Germanic origin: related to Dutch leer, German Lehre, also to learn . • lore 2 |lɔ(ə)r| |lɔː| • noun Zoology • the surface on each side of a bird's head between the eye and the upper base of the beak, or between the eye and nostril in snakes. • ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from Latin lorum ‘strap.’

  4. So... • Notice how it means a story, because he is reading a book. Also, notice how it relates to a bird. FORESHADOWING!!!

  5. Surcease: stanza two • surcease |sərˈsēs| • noun • cessation : he teased us without surcease. • • relief or consolation : drugs are taken to provide surcease from intolerable psychic pain. • verb [ intrans. ] archaic • cease.

  6. So... • In this context it means he uses the books to escape from the pain of loosing Lenore.

  7. Entreat: stanza three • entreat |enˈtrēt| • verb • 1 [ reporting verb ] ask someone earnestly or anxiously to do something : [ trans. ] his friends entreated him not to go. See note at beg . • • [ trans. ] ask earnestly or anxiously for (something) : a message had been sent, entreating aid for the Navajos. • 2 [ trans. ] archaic treat (someone) in a specified manner : the King, I fear, hath ill entreated her.

  8. So... • Notice how he uses entreat instead of ask for, he uses this to express the anxious and persistent manner of the rapping at his door.

  9. Token: stanza five • token |ˈtōkən| • noun • 1 a thing serving as a visible or tangible representation of something abstract : mistletoe was cut from an oak tree as a token of good fortune. See notes at emblem, sign .

  10. So... • This word usage is tricky. Its the tangible representation for something abstract. Is this meant to imply that this is in his head? Knowing Poe we have to take that into consideration, because he choses his words VERY carefully.

  11. Lattice: stanza six • lattice |ˈlatis| • noun • a structure consisting of strips of wood or metal crossed and fastened together with square or diamond-shaped spaces left between, used typically as a screen or fence or as a support for climbing plants.

  12. So... • This might have been meant to scare us into thinking someone climbed the window lattice and is at the window.

  13. Thereat: stanza six • thereat |ðe(ə)rˈat| • adverb archaic or formal • 1 at that place.

  14. Flirt: Stanza seven • flirt |flərt| • • ( flirt with) deliberately expose oneself to (danger or difficulty) : the need of some individuals to flirt with death. • 2 [ trans. ] (of a bird) wave or open and shut (its wings or tail) with a quick flicking motion. • • [ intrans. ] move back and forth with a flicking or fluttering motion : the lark was flirting around the site.

  15. Yore: stanza seven • yore |yôr| • noun (in phrase of yore) poetic/literary • of long ago or former times (used in nostalgic or mock-nostalgic recollection) : a great empire in days of yore.

  16. Obeisance: stanza seven • obeisance |ōˈbāsəns; ōˈbē-| • noun • deferential respect : they paid obeisance to the prince. See note at honor . • • a gesture expressing deferential respect, such as a bow or curtsy : she made a deep obeisance.

  17. Mien: stanza seven • mien |mēn| • noun poetic/literary • a person's look or manner, esp. one of a particular kind indicating their character or mood : he has a cautious, academic mien.

  18. Beguiling: stanza eight • beguile |biˈgīl| • verb [ trans. ] • 1 charm or enchant (someone), sometimes in a deceptive way : every prominent American artist has been beguiled by Maine | [as adj. ] ( beguiling) a beguiling smile. See note at tempt . • • trick (someone) into doing something : they were beguiled into signing a peace treaty.

  19. Decorum: stanza eight • decorum |diˈkôrəm| • noun behavior in keeping with good taste and propriety : you exhibit remarkable modesty and decorum.• etiquette : he had no idea of funeral decorum.• (usu. decorums) archaic a particular requirement of good taste and propriety.• archaic suitability to the requirements of a person, rank, or occasion.ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (as a literary term, denoting suitability of style): from Latin, neuter of the adjective decorus ‘seemly.’

  20. Discourse: Stanza eight • discoursenoun |ˈdisˌkôrs| • written or spoken communication or debate : the language of political discourse | an imagined discourse between two people traveling in France.• a formal discussion of a topic in speech or writing : a discourse on critical theory.• Linguistics a connected series of utterances; a text or conversation.verb |disˈkôrs| |dɪsˈkɔrs| |dɪsˈkɔːs| [ intrans. ]speak or write authoritatively about a topic : she could discourse at greatlength on the history of Europe.• engage in conversation : he spent an hour discoursing with his supporters in the courtroom.ORIGIN late Middle English (denoting the process of reasoning, also in the phrase discourse of reason): from Old French discours, from Latindiscursus ‘running to and fro’ (in medieval Latin ‘argument’ ), from the verb discurrere, from dis- ‘away’ + currere ‘to run’ ; the verb influenced by French discourir.

  21. Placid: stanza nine • placid |ˈplasid| • adjective(of a person or animal) not easily upset or excited : this horse has a placidnature.• (esp. of a place or stretch of water) calm and peaceful, with little movement or activity : the placid waters of a small lake.See note at calm .DERIVATIVESplacidity |pləˈsiditē| |pløˈsɪdədi| |pləˈsɪdədi| |pləˈsɪdɪti|nounplacidly |ˈpløsədli| adverbORIGIN early 17th cent.: from French placide, from Latin placidus, from placere ‘to please.’

  22. Outpour: stanza nine • outpouring |ˈoutˌpôri ng | • nounsomething that streams out rapidly : a massive outpouring of high-energy gamma rays.• (often outpourings) an outburst of strong emotion : spontaneous outpourings of affection and support | the unprecedented outpouring of tearfulgrief.

  23. Seraphim: stanza fourteen • seraph |ˈserəf| • noun ( pl. seraphim |ˈserəˌfim| or seraphs )an angelic being, regarded in traditional Christian angelology as belonging to the highest order of the ninefold celestial hierarchy, associated with light, ardor, and purity.

  24. Respite: stanza fifteen • respite |ˈrespət; riˈspīt| • noun short period of rest or relief from something difficult or unpleasant : the refugee encampments will provide some respite from the suffering | [in sing.] a brief respite from a dire food shortage.• a short delay permitted before an unpleasant obligation is met or a punishment is carried out.

  25. Nepenthe: stanza fifteen • nepenthes |nəˈpenθēz| • noun  1 (also nepenthe) |-θē| poetic/literary a drug described in Homer'sOdyssey as banishing grief or trouble from a person's mind.• any drug or potion bringing welcome forgetfulness. [ORIGIN: viaLatin from Greek nēpenthēs ‘dispelling pain,’ from nē- ‘not’ +penthos ‘grief.’ ]

  26. Plume: stanza seventeen • plume |ploōm| • noun a long, soft feather or arrangement of feathers used by a bird for display or worn by a person for ornament : a hat with a jaunty ostrich plume.• Zoology a part of an animal's body that resembles a feather : the antennae are divided into large feathery plumes.• a long cloud of smoke or vapor resembling a feather as it spreads from its point of origin : as he spoke, the word was accompanied by a white plume of breath.• a mass of material, typically a pollutant, spreading from a source : a radioactive plume.• (also mantle plume) Geology a localized column of hot magma rising by convection in the mantle, believed to cause volcanic activity in hot spots, such as the Hawaiian Islands, away from plate margins.verb1 [ intrans. ] spread out in a shape resembling a feather : smoke plumed from the chimneys.• [ trans. ] decorate with or as if with feathers : [as adj. ] ( plumed) a plumed cap.2 ( plume oneself) chiefly archaic (of a bird) preen itself.• figurative feel a great sense of self-satisfaction about something : sheplumed herself on being cosmopolitan.

  27. Tempest: stanza sixteen • empest |ˈtempist| • noun violent windy storm.

  28. Laden: stanza sixteen • lade |lād| • verb ( past part. laden |ˈlādn|) [ trans. ] archaicload (a ship or other vessel).• ship (goods) as cargo.• [ intrans. ] (of a ship) take on cargo.ORIGIN Old English hladan, of West Germanic origin; related to Dutchand German laden ‘to load,’ also to ladle and perhaps to lathe .laden |ˈlādn| |ˈleɪdn| |ˈleɪd(ə)n|adjectiveheavily loaded or weighed down : a tree laden with apples | [incombination ] the moisture-laden air.

  29. Aptly: stanza ten • apt |apt| • adjective1 appropriate or suitable in the circumstances : an apt description of her nature.2 [ predic. ] ( apt to do something) having a tendency to do something : she was apt to confuse the past with the present.3 quick to learn : he proved an apt scholar.DERIVATIVESaptly |ˈøp(t)li| adverbaptness |ˈøp(t)nəs| nounORIGIN late Middle English (in the sense [suited, appropriate] ): fromLatin aptus ‘fitted,’ past participle of apere ‘fasten.’