ED 260-Educational Psychology. Ashley Swanson. This Week’s Topics. Module 15-Behavioral Theory Module 16-Cognitive Theories Module 17-Self Theories. Module 15- Behavioral Theory. Operant Conditioning. Reinforcement = increase in behaviors Punishment = decreasing behaviors. Motivation.
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ED 260-Educational Psychology Ashley Swanson
This Week’s Topics • Module 15-Behavioral Theory • Module 16-Cognitive Theories • Module 17-Self Theories
Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement = increase in behaviors • Punishment = decreasing behaviors
Motivation • Extrinsic Motivation: individuals engage in an activity or behavior to obtain an external outcome, such as a praise or reward • Intrinsic Motivation: individuals engage in an activity or behavior for the internal satisfaction it provides, rather than the external reward
Motivation • Many learning activities can be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivating • Students’ intrinsic motivation decreases as they get older
Motivation • Locus of Control: belief that the result of one’s behavior is due to either external factors outside one’s control (external locus) or internal factors under one’s control (internal locus).
Rewards • Teachers attempt to stimulate students’ intrinsic motivation by using extrinsic motivators • Research has found rewards actually undermine intrinsic motivation
Rewards • To use rewards to enhance intrinsic motivation teachers must consider: • Purpose of reward • How students perceive reward • Context in which reward is given • Task-contingent rewards= undermine intrinsic motivation • Performance-contingent rewards= encourage intrinsic motivation
Using Rewards Effectively • Occasionally use unexpected rewards • Use expected, tangible rewards sparingly • Withdraw rewards ASAP • Use the most modest reward possible • Make rewards contingent on quality of work • Minimize authoritarian style teaching
Discuss with your group ways that you have seen rewards used in the classroom. Where they effective for intrinsically motivating students?
Classroom Economy • This teacher’s classroom economy is one example of an effective way of using rewards in the classroom and balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top_teaching/2010/01/class-economy
Praise • Praise: Positive feedback in the form of written or spoken comments. • Has a limited window of effectiveness • Depending on the type of praise, how it is given, and how it is perceived, praise can have positive effects • Unexpected • Free • Provides encouragement and enhances self-esteem
Praise • Process Praise: Evaluation of the process taken to complete the task • Performance Praise: Evaluation of the end product • Person Praise: judgment about a person’s attributes or behaviors
Using Praise Effectively • Make praise specific to the behavior being reinforced • Be sure praise is sincere • Give praise that is contingent on the behavior being reinforced • See Table 15.1 on page 271 • Encourage students to praise each other
Be a “Bucket Filler” Website: http://www.bucketfillers101.com Image from: http://www.derbyps.org/page.cfm?p=1448
Intrinsically Motivating Learning Environment • Convey the importance/relevance of the lesson • Use enthusiasm and surprise to introduce lesson • Design tasks of optimal difficulty • Provide students with choices for learning activities • Allow students to work in collaborative groups • Display student work
Expectancy-Value Theory • Expectancies and values predict motivational behaviors. • Expectancy: Students’ expectations for success • Can I complete this task? • Value: Reasons for undertaking a task • Why should I want to do this task?
Expectancies • Depends on students’ competency belief-belief that one has the ability to perform a task or succeed at an activity • Compare ability in one domain to other domains • Compare ability to the abilities of peers • Competency beliefs are determined by: • Past experiences • Interpretations of past experiences • Social and cultural factors
Values • Intrinsic Value: satisfying an interest, curiosity, or enjoyment • Attainment Value: intrinsic importance of being good at a task • Utility Value: extrinsic usefulness for meeting short-term and long-term goals • A task can have more than one type of value. • The values students assign to a task can affect their achievement
Goal Theory • Achievement goal includes: • Reasons for choosing to perform a task • Standard constructed to evaluate performance • Goal orientation (what drives behaviors and choices) is made up of two types of mastery goals and two types of performance goals • Mastery approach goals • Performance approach goals • Master avoidance goals • Performance avoidance goals
Goal Theory • Mastery and performance goals work together to motivate students. • Mastery goals are important while students are acquiring a skill, while performance goals promote interest in the skill once it is developed. • Students who pursue both mastery and performance goals, tend to have greater intrinsic motivation
Attribution Theory • Three dimensions of attributions that influence student motivation: • Locus: where the cause of the outcome is placed (Internal or External) • Stability: whether the cause is stable or unstable • Expect future success when we attribute success to stable cause • Expectation for success decreases when failure is attributed to a stable cause • Controllability: personal responsibility for the cause of success or failure
Attribution Theory • Attributions made are affected by: • One’s beliefs in his/her abilities • Evaluations made by others about one’s academic performance • Views on ability: • Incremental view of ability: ability is perceived as unstable, controllable, and ever-changing (Intrinsically motivated) • Success attributed to ability= motivated to continue to improve knowledge • Failure attributed to ability=motivate to improve for success next time • Entity view of ability: ability is stable, uncontrollable, and fixed (Extrinsically motivated) • Success attributed to ability=continue to demonstrate competence if competence is valued by others • Failure attributed to ability= expectations for future success diminish and students lose motivation
Attribution Theory • For teachers it is easy to take an entity view of ability. • Pass judgment quickly based on initial performance • Hold low expectations for students • Students attribute failure to low ability or teacher bias • Important for teachers to be mindful of their reactions to student performance. • If student has an incremental view of their ability and they feel the are trying their hardest, a teacher can cause them to adopt an entity view. • Ex) “I know you can do better than that” “You are so smart”
Classroom Application • Enhancing students’ motivations • Student-level techniques: • Change students’ attributions for success and failure • Re-attribution training • Teach students to value challenge, improvement, and effort • Provide short-term goals and strategies for making progress toward larger goals
Classroom Application • Enhancing students’ motivations • Classroom-level techniques: • Reduce competitive atmosphere of the classroom • Use appropriate methods of evaluation and recognition • Emphasize the value of learning
Serious Motivational Problems • Learned Helplessness: occurs when students who have experienced repeated failures attribute their failures to causes beyond their control. • Reduce learned helplessness: • Use of motivational techniques • Providing students with opportunities for success
Serious Motivational Problems • Anxiety: Mental thoughts related to worrying and negative emotions such as nervousness or tension, which can impair academic performance. • Emotional: nervousness, tension • Cognitive: worry that interferes with learning tasks • Physical: increased heart rate, sweaty palms, shortness of breath
Serious Motivational Problems • Anxiety can occur at three stages during instruction: • Preprocessing • Processing • Output • Sources of anxiety: • Parents • Student’s outlook • Learning environment • Subject matter • Chart 16.1 on page 294 for helpful tips on reducing student anxiety
Self Theories • Three main theories: • Self-Efficacy Theory • Self-Worth Theory • Self-Determination Theory • These theories have two major things in common: • A competence that underlies motivation • Intrinsic motivation
Self-Efficacy Theory • Self efficacy: expectation that one is capable of performing a task or succeeding in an activity • Self-efficacy influences motivation for a task • To be motivated, one must have high outcome and efficacy expectations • Outcome expectations: beliefs that certain actions lead to certain outcomes • Efficacy expectations: beliefs that one has the requisite knowledge and skills to achieve the outcome
Self-Efficacy Theory • Self-efficacy is domain specific-a student can have high self-efficacy in one subject, but low self-efficacy in another • Beliefs about self-efficacy are influenced by: • Past performances • Vicarious experiences • Verbal persuasion • States of emotional arousal • As students transition from elementary to middle to high school the increased emphasis on grades can cause students to reassess their self-efficacy
Self-Efficacy Theory • Self-regulation: the ability to control one’s emotions, cognitions, and behaviors by providing consequences to oneself • Students with higher self-efficacy are more likely to engage in self-regulatory processes (goal setting, planning, strategy use, self-monitoring, & self-reflection) • Self-regulatory processes are linked to higher intrinsic motivation
Self-Efficacy Theory • Teacher efficacy: belief by teachers that they have the necessary skills to effectively teach all students • Teachers with high efficacy: • Spend more time planning and organizing • Are willing to try new instructional methods • Modify the curriculum for students with varying abilities • Use effective classroom management strategies • Show persistence when it comes to helping struggling students
Self-Worth Theory • Self-worth: appraisal of one’s own value as a person • Students’ perceptions of their abilities contribute to their self-worth. • Proving ability can become the main focus of students’ learning and can cause their motivation to shift from learning to avoiding negative consequences, such as looking incompetent
Self-Worth Theory • Understanding the difference between “approaching success” and “avoiding failure” is key to understanding the motivation of different types of students. • Four main types of students: • Success-oriented students • Overstrivers • Failure-avoiding students • Failure-accepting students
Self-Determination Theory • Humans possess the innate need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. • Autonomy: behavior is internally controlled and that we have choices in our actions • Competence: desire to explore and attempt the mastery of skills • Relatedness: sense of being securely connected to others • When these needs are met, we feel a sense of self-determination • Freedom to pursue goals and activities that are relevant and interesting to us
Self-Determination Theory • Feelings of competence increase intrinsic motivation only when they are supported by autonomy. • Students are more likely to be intrinsically motivated when they feel relatedness. • Safe environment • Bonded with a teacher • Close relationships with classmates • Self-determination is specific to particular domains.
Classroom Application • Students with high self-efficacy, positive self-worth, and self-determination are more likely to be intrinsically motivated. • Teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation by: • Capitalizing on interest and relevance • Providing choices among tasks • Teach and model skills necessary for success • Focus on mastery • Teach student how to set appropriate goals • Provide appropriate feedback • Build strong relationships with students
Main Sources: Bohlin, L., Durwin, C. C., & Reese-Weber, M. (2009). EdPsych: Modules. New York: McGraw-Hill Newingham, B. (2010). “My Classroom Economy: Bringing the “Real World” into the Classroom”. Retrieved from: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top_teaching/2010/01/class-economy