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ED 260-Educational Psychology. Ashley Swanson. Today’s Topics:. Module 2-Contexts of Development Module 3-Social Development Discuss Case Studies in Groups & Work on Problem Statements. Module 2-Contexts of Development. Contexts of Development.

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Today s topics
Today’s Topics:

  • Module 2-Contexts of Development

  • Module 3-Social Development

  • Discuss Case Studies in Groups & Work on Problem Statements

Contexts of development
Contexts of Development

The people and places that support and influence development

Bronfenbrenner s biological theory
Bronfenbrenner’s Biological Theory

  • Bronfenbrenner’s theory emphasizes the combined function of the person and the many systems that exist in the environment and interact to influence a person’s development.

  • Bronfenbrenner’sBioecological Model consists of:

    • Microsystem

    • Mesosystem

    • Exosystem

    • Macrosystem

    • Chronosystem

Bronfenbrenner s biological theory1
Bronfenbrenner’s Biological Theory

  • Microsystem: Immediate environment surrounding the individual. Includes people, relationships, and systems that directly interact with the individual.

  • Mesosystem: Links together two or more microsystems.

  • Exosystem: The interaction among two or more environments-one that does not directly include the individual.

  • Macrosystem: Includes social features that affect individuals (broader cultural patterns)-beliefs, customs, knowledge, and morals

  • Chronosystem: Changes in an individuals environment over time

Bioecological theory activity
Bioecological Theory Activity


  • The most influential of all microsystems.

  • Basic aspects of family, such as parenting style, divorce, and remarriage, have a direct effect on how the family interacts with schools.

Baumrind s parenting practices
Baumrind’s Parenting Practices

  • Baumrind’s Parenting Practices:

    • Authoritative

    • Authoritarian

    • Permissive

    • Uninvolved

  • It is important to recognize parenting style and students’ family situations so that you can better understand why students act the way they do. This knowledge can guide you in your interactions with students.

Baumrind s parenting practices1
Baumrind’s Parenting Practices

  • Authoritative: Limits are set and rules are enforced, but parents are still flexible.

  • Authoritarian: Limits are set and rules are enforced, but parents are inflexible.

  • Permissive: Limits and rules are lacking, but parents are supportive.

  • Uninvolved: Parents are disconnected from what is going on with their child.

  • Which parenting style was used by your parents? What effect do you think it had on your development?

Child abuse and neglect
Child Abuse and Neglect

  • In 2004, approximately 872,000 children were determined to have been victims of abuse or neglect in the United States.

  • Only 10% of abuse and neglect reports originate in schools.

  • As an educator or SLP working in another setting you are considered a mandated reporter by law.

  • Reporting requirements vary by state, but under the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003, states require any person who has reasonable cause to suspect abuse has occurred to make a report to their communities Child Protective Services.

  • Failure to report suspected neglect or abuse can lead to legal implications.

Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Remarriage

  • Approximately 50% of all first marriages and 60% of all second marriages end in divorce.

  • Children are affected differently by divorce depending on a number of factors.

  • What factors do you think have an effect on how students handle their parents’ divorce?

  • Some of the family functioning issues that accompany divorce carry over into remarriage.

Divorce and remarriage1
Divorce and Remarriage

  • Children from both divorced and remarried homes are more likely to struggle in school.

  • Understanding how students/patients families function gives educators the opportunity to provide the support needed to help students with these transitions.

  • Students who have a strong relationship with another adult outside the family are less likely to experience difficulties.

  • Self-fulfilling prophecy: an unverified expectation that becomes true because it was expected.

    • Ex) Holding students/patients to low standards because of their family situation


  • The second most important microsystem in influencing student development.

  • Early childhood friendships are based on moment-to-moment interactions and on having more stable, similar qualities.

    • Ex) Play interests

  • As students get older friendships shift towards being based on more complex issues and common values.

    • Ex) Future goals, attitudes towards school, career aspirations


  • Cliques: small groups of 2-8 people who know each other very well.

    • Cliques typically include same-sex friends during elementary and middle school and in high school the groups shift to mixed-sex friends.

  • Crowds: larger, reputation-based groups that have common labels.

    • Ex) Populars, Jocks, Nerds, Average, Loners, Druggies

  • “Teachers should attempt to foster friendships among peers early in students’ development and continue to support group formation throughout adolescence” (Bohlin, Durwin, & Reese-Weber, 38).

  • Peer statuses
    Peer Statuses

    • Usually determined by both socially appropriate behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

    • Types of Aggression:

      • Overt Aggression: intended to harm another person physically.

        • Ex) Punching, Kicking

        • More common with boys

      • Relational Aggression: intended to damage another’s social status, feelings, or friendships.

        • Ex) Gossiping, Spreading rumors

        • More common with girls

    Peer statuses1
    Peer Statuses

    • Popular

      • Sociometric Popularity: well liked

        • Not related to aggressive behaviors

      • Perceived Popularity: well known, but not necessarily well liked

        • Tend to show higher levels of aggression

    • Rejected

      • Students who show aggressive behaviors, but lack positive social skills and cooperative behavior

      • Victims of aggression often become aggressive themselves

    • Neglected

      • Students who are neither aggressive or popular

    Erikson s psychosocial theory
    Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

    • One of the only theories that extends over the entire lifespan.

    • During each stage of Erikson’s theory an individual masters a new psychological crisis.

    • Each developmental stage has a positive outcome and a negative outcome.

    • Stages 1-5 apply to infants-adolescents and Stages 6-8 apply to adults.

    Erikson s psychosocial theory2
    Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

    • Trust vs. Mistrust

    • Autonomy vs. Doubt/Shame

    • Initiative vs. Guilt

    • Industry vs. Inferiority

    • Identity vs. Identity Diffusion

    • Intimacy vs. Isolation

    • Generativity vs. Stagnation

    • Integrity vs. Despair

    Identity statuses
    Identity Statuses

    • Identity Achieved: provided opportunities to explore many options and commit themselves to their own morals and values.

    • Identity Foreclosure: have not been given the time to explore, but have accepted the commitments set forth by their parents.

    • Moratorium: provided with opportunities to explore, but have not made any commitments.

    • Identity Diffusion: have not yet begun the exploration process and therefore have made no commitments.

    Ethnic identity
    Ethnic Identity

    • Attitudes and behaviors towards membership in an ethnic or racial group.

    • Components of ethnic identity:

      • Self-identification

      • Sense of belonging

      • Positive or negative attitude towards ethnicity

      • Ethnic involvement

  • Different ethnic groups develop gender identity at different rates.

  • Gender identity
    Gender Identity

    • Facets of Gender:

      • Gender Identity: understanding that one is biologically male or female.

      • Gender-Role Identity: knowledge of societal expectations for males vs. females.

      • Gender-Role Attitude: whether or not one accepts societal expectations for one’s gender.

    Understanding self
    Understanding Self

    • Self-Concept: the assessment of one’s abilities. “What” we think about ourselves.

    • Self Esteem: the feelings and attitudes towards one’s abilities. “How” we feel about our self concept.

    Self concept

    • Includes the student’s perception of their knowledge and abilities in an academic setting.

    • Relationship between positive academic self-concept and achievement is reciprocal.

    • Educators should make quality interactions with students a priority because positive teacher-student relationships are linked to positive academic self-concept and achievement.

    Self esteem

    • Global Self-Esteem: overall well-being

    • Domain-Specific Self-Esteem: well-being in specific aspects of life

    • Self-esteem is influenced by:

      • SES

      • Gender

      • Ethnicity

      • Generational factors

    Social competence
    Social Competence

    • Comprised of:

      • Social Adjustment: how students behave in social situations.

        • Emotional expressiveness

        • Emotional understanding

        • Emotional regulation

      • Social Performance: actively participating in social situations

        • Sociability

        • Prosociability

      • Social Skills: specific behaviors in interpersonal contexts

    • Research supports that fostering social competence in children and adolescents can improve academic achievement, especially in high risk students.

    Case study example
    Case Study Example

    • Ashley Swanson is a 2nd grade teacher in a suburban elementary school in Olathe, Kansas. Her students come from various backgrounds. She has students of numerous ethnicities from both high and low SES homes. Parent involvement varies depending on whether both parents work outside the home. Emerson comes from a family of 4 children, where she is the youngest. Her three older siblings all worked with the resource teacher during elementary school and Emerson’s family calls her “the smart one”. Emerson’s parents are consumed with traveling for work and with the state of her father’s health. At the start of the year Emerson was an outgoing student who was excited about learning.

    Case study example1
    Case Study Example

    • During beginning of the year district testing, Emerson scored below grade level in math. Her teacher Mrs. Swanson recognizes this and decides to “keep an eye” on Emerson, as there are students in the class who scored significantly lower that she needs to focus on. In the beginning of the year, Emerson frequently volunteers to answer math questions during whole group instruction. Mrs. Swanson notices that Emerson is consistently answering the questions incorrectly. Mrs. Swanson allows Emerson to use some counting cubes to try to help her with her basic addition. As the year goes on, Emerson continues to struggle with math and Mrs. Swanson notices that Emerson has stopped volunteering to answer questions. Mrs. Swanson decides to try to call on Emerson to encourage her to volunteer again in hopes of making her more confident.

    Problem statement example
    Problem Statement Example

    Mrs. Swanson is not providing Emerson the support she needs to be successful, therefore, Emerson’s low academic achievement is causing her to experience feelings of inferiority.

    Main sources
    Main Sources:

    Bohlin, L., Durwin, C. C., & Reese-Weber, M. (2009). EdPsych: Modules. New York: McGraw-Hill

    Lichtenberger, D. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Retrieved from: http://drewlichtenberger.com/6-shaping-influences-human-development/

    Psch 1001 Blog. (2011). Parenting Styles. Retrieved from: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/nich0185/myblog2/2012/04/being-strict-isnt-always-the-trick.html

    Psychology Notes Headquarters. (2013). Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved from: http://www.psychologynoteshq.com/erikerikson/

    Social Thinking. (2014). Superflex Curriculum. Retrieved from: https://www.socialthinking.com/books-products/superflex-curriculum32