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How to Incorporate Sources I: Quoting, Summarizing, & Paraphrasing PIE. ESL 505 Adapted from Dr. Sadler, Susan Faivre , Nyssa Bulkes , and Jihye Yoon. What is a summary?. Shorter in length than the original work Uses your own words to rearticulate the main points of an original work

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how to incorporate sources i quoting summarizing paraphrasing pie

How to Incorporate Sources I:Quoting, Summarizing, & ParaphrasingPIE

ESL 505

Adapted from Dr. Sadler, Susan Faivre, Nyssa Bulkes, and Jihye Yoon

what is a summary
What is a summary?
  • Shorter in length than the original work
  • Uses your own words to rearticulate the main points of an original work
  • Omits smaller details, lesser supporting points of original work
  • A means of incorporating the main ideas of a paper or publication that are relevant to your work
  • Objective
a summary should
A summary should …
  • Cover the original as a whole
  • Be neutral
  • Be a condensed version of the material, in your own words
objectivity in a summary
Objectivity in a summary
  • This is an example of what NOT to do!
  • The short, well written film “Alma” tells the unique story of a curious girl who sees a doll in a toy-shop window that looks shockingly like herself. After a struggle, she manages to enter the toy shop, in which she sees many other dolls with the toy shop, which is really cute, in which she sees many other dolls with the likenesses of children. She finally finds the doll she saw in the window, but when she reaches up to touch it, she disappears inside the doll. This part was unrealistic. At the end, the viewer sees the eyes of the doll moving, a doll situated among other dolls whose eyes are also moving. The film ends with another doll appearing in the shop window, presumably to draw the attention of another child. The film ends in a weird place.
quotation
Quotation
  • Same words, same length
  • Exactly as the author originally wrote it
  • Integrate sources by quotation when wording/phrasing is interesting, unique
  • Quote when HOW something is said is as significant as WHAT is said
paraphrase
Paraphrase
  • Paraphrasing…
    • Is the most common type of source integration.
    • Makes you sound like you know your stuff!
    • Helps keep your ideas at the forefront.

comparison chart

pie structure

PIE Structure

Adapted from

Prof. Randall Sadler and Susan Faivre

slide8
PIE!

Point

Illustration

Explanation

pie structure1
PIE Structure

Point

Although the bald eagle is still listed as an endangered species, its ever-increasing population is very encouraging. According to ornithologist Jay Sheppard, “The bald eagle seems to have stabilized its population, at the very least, almost everywhere” (2004, p. 96).

Signal Phrase

Illustration In-text Citation (Notice the author is mentioned in the signal phrase)

(No explanation yet!)

every quote paraphrase summary you use should have all 5 of these things
Every quote/paraphrase/summary you use should have all 5 of these things:
  • Point
  • Signal Phrase

(These 2 may or may not be one sentence)

  • Illustration (quote/paraphrase/summary)
  • In-text citation
  • Explanation
other options for pie
Other options for PIE
  • Point
  • Signal Phrase #1
  • Illustration #1
  • Signal Phrase #2
  • Illustration #2
  • Signal Phrase # 3
  • Illustration #3
  • Explanation (or the explanation might be used throughout the paragraph)
  • You as the author need to decide what is needed to best illustrate and explain your point
examples of signal phrases
Examples of signal phrases
  • In the words of researcher and Nobel prize winner Chie Fujii, “…” (Quotation to follow in “…”)
  • As Sang-soo Lee has noted, “…”
  • Bhatt points out that “….”
  • “…,” claims linguist Noam Chomsky.
  • Psychologist Ivan Cokrosaputra offers an odd argument for this view: “…”
  • Dring answers these objections with the following analysis: “…”
  • According to Randall Sadler, author of Give me all your money, “…”
  • The signal phrase indicates what is to come is not the author’s own, that they’re borrowing from another source to better illustrate their point
example pie structures
Example PIE structures
  • In addition, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) helps recruiting talented students, which is an essential factor for continuous development of a company. Hill & Knowlton, Inc. (2008) showed thatcompetent students in leading Universities prefer the companies with a higher corporate reputation through their CSR activities(p.4). As examples above show, both reputations and competent human resources can be obtained through CSR activities.

Point

Signal phrase

Illustration

In-text citation

Explanation

example pie structures cont
Example PIE structures (cont.)
  • One main problem is that most government positions are filled with men and they might not be feminists. According to Center for American Women and Politics (2012), women hold far less percentage in government positions not only in present day but also in the past (p. 26).The current feminism opportunities and gender equalities regulations are the result of years long fighting and campaigning.

Point

Signal phrase

Illustration

In-text citation

Explanation

s ummary
Summary
  • When integrating information from other sources into your own writing, remember PIE:
  • Point
  • Signal Phrase

(These 2 may or may not be one sentence)

  • Illustration (quote/paraphrase/summary)
  • In-text citation
  • Explanation
references
References

Hacker, D. (1995). A Writer’s Reference. Boston: Bedford Books.

Sadler, R. (2005). Topic Sentences and Pie Structure. Resources. Retrieved from: eslweb.org.

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