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Disasters and Development Reducing Risk-Protecting Livelihoods. Global Perspectives of Disaster Risk 4 May, 2009 Trish Zweig Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme ( DiMP ) University of Cape Town. Objectives.

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disasters and development reducing risk protecting livelihoods

Disasters and Development Reducing Risk-Protecting Livelihoods

Global Perspectives of Disaster Risk

4 May, 2009

Trish Zweig

Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme (DiMP)

University of Cape Town

objectives
Objectives
  • To introduce concepts of disaster reduction, disaster management and disaster risk
  • To introduce the ‘top and bottom trays’ of the disaster risk reduction toolkit
  • To introduce the Hyogo Framework for Action
a world of increasing disaster risk
A world of increasing disaster risk?

Australian wildfires

Feb 2009

Hurricane Katrina

US$200 billion

South Asian Earthquake

3 million homeless

Swine flu’ 2009

Millions threatened

slide4

Introducing Disaster Risk:Why be concerned?

  • In 1990s, global economic costs of disasters with a natural trigger > $US 608 billion.
  • 3 x economic losses in 1980s
  • 9 x economic losses in 1960s
  • by 2050, expected to reach $US300 billion/annually

Not only a world of increasing risk, but also one of rapidly changing risks …

slide6

A World of Rising Urban Risks

2001 – 924 million in slums or informal settlements

Now By 2030

3.3 bn pop 5.0 bn pop

Asia 2.64 bn

Lat Am/Car 600 million

Africa doubles to

742 million

By 2030, 2 bn people in slums or informal settlements

slide8

Developed countries annual loss around 2-5% of GDP …compared to 13.4% of GDP in poor countries … infrastructural loss.

  • International stats exclude
  • drought & often uninsured
  • losses … under-represent
  • losses in South and recurrent
  • small events. Major human
  • impacts - deaths, displacement,
  • food insecurity
the most important shift in international emphasis is
The most important shift ininternational emphasis is:

From

To

Managing

disaster events

Managing disaster

risks

Primary focus on

preparedness and

relief

Primary focus on

reducing disaster risks

developmentally

this means shifting away from waiting for a disaster
This means shifting away from‘waiting for a disaster’

Which is …

A serious disruption of a household,

community, ecosystem or society that:

  • results in human, material, economic

or environmental losses

  • exceeds the ability of those affected to manage, using their own resources.

To …

reducing disaster risks through development action

Risk-proofing against extreme

weather events,

Suurbraak, South Africa

Reducing disaster risks through development action

Disaster risk reduction is a framework that enables efforts to reduce vulnerabilities and disaster risks

- to avoid (prevent)

- to limit (mitigate and prepare for) the adverse impacts of hazards

Rainwater harvesting in Tanzania

top tray of the disaster reduction toolkit key concepts
Top tray of the disaster reduction toolkit – key concepts --
  • Hazard
  • Vulnerability
  • Disaster risk
  • Disaster risk reduction
why are hazards important
Why are hazards important?
  • A potentially damaging physical

event or action that may harm

people, their economic assets,

infrastructure and environment.

  • May be natural (ie a storm) or

human-induced (industrial accident/ candle toppling)

  • More than 70% of all disasters are ‘triggered’ by weather hazards.

This is the external part of disaster risk –

understanding significantly shaped by physical scientists

we live with hazards
We live with hazards
  • They are also resources for us.
  • Hazards are with us every day... Electricity, wind, heavy rain, motor vehicles, crime.
  • They may be ‘slow-onset’ (like drought)
  • Or they may be sudden onset (like cyclones)
  • Hazards can increase disaster risk, but they don’t ‘cause’ disasters
disaster risk is also increased by vulnerability
Disaster risk is also increased by vulnerability

This means:

… the conditions and processes

that increase the susceptibility of

a household, community or area

to the impacts of a hazard

  • This is the internal part of disaster risk
  • Understanding of which is significantly developed
  • by social scientists and humanitarian organisations
slide16

1) Exposure

  • Location
  • Environmental
  • surroundings

Vulnerability* as:

2) Levels of resistance

  • Livelihoods
  • Health

3) Levels of resilience

  • Adaptation
  • Preparedness

* Mark Pelling environmental vulnerability, in Vulnerability of Cities (2003)

what is disaster risk
What is disaster risk?

It is:

  • the likelihoodof some kind of harm (illness, injury, death, property and environmental damage, disrupted lives and livelihoods)
  • due to the interaction between hazardsand conditions of vulnerability.
  • Risk = H x V x elements at risk

capacity

what is disaster risk reduction

Disaster risk reduction

is a framework that

enables efforts to reduce

vulnerabilities and

disasterrisks

What is disaster risk reduction?

to avoid (prevent)

and

limit (mitigate and prepare for)

the adverse impacts

of hazards

summary
Summary
  • Economic losses from disaster events will rise dramatically affecting populations at-risk
  • Global emphasis has shifted significantly to focus on reducing disaster risks, rather than managing disaster events
  • Key concepts are hazard, vulnerability, disaster risk and disaster risk reduction
introducing the second tray of the tool kit
Introducing the second tray of the tool kit
  • Comprises older ‘used tools’ from disaster management
  • Includes ‘newer tools’ from the disaster risk reduction framework
what did we call disaster management
What did we call ‘disaster management?’

Disaster management organised action around:

Post-disaster or

‘ ‘reactive’

Pre-disaster or ...’proactive’

Disaster event

Prevention

Mitigation

Preparedness

Recovery/

rehabilitation

Relief/response

Disaster management has provided useful concepts, actions

and approaches (older tools)

prevention
Prevention
  • Measures designed to provide permanent protection … or reduce the intensity of a hazardous event so it does not become a disaster…
  • eg… reforesting an unstable slope to prevent landslides
mitigation
Mitigation
  • Measures taken well in advance of a hazard alert to minimise vulnerability of communities/h’holds to a known/expected threat
  • Eg protecting deep wells in cholera-prone areas, crop diversification to drought tolerant varieties.
  • Structural vs non-structural mitigation
structural mitigation
Structural mitigation
  • Measures that try to keep hazards away from people or buildings, or to strengthen buildings, infrastructure …
  • such as electrical power and transportation systems, or sites that are exposed to hazards (ie dams, channel diversions, building codes and construction practices).
slide25

Structural mitigation … increasing the risk - postponing the loss ?

  • It is speculated that many structural mitigation measures merely delay losses that are inevitable …
  • as the design criteria for say, flood protection dams are inadequate for future extreme weather events …ie technological protection does not afford security - esp. if the population has increased.
preparedness
Preparedness
  • Advance measures taken to predict, respond to and manage a hazard event… measures that prepare people to react appropriately before, during and after it.
  • Eg dissemination of early warning info on approaching cyclone … intensified health education before rainy season
relief response
Relief/response
  • Measures taken to alleviate immediate hardship and meet basic needs for shelter, water, sanitation, health care as well as search, rescue and protection of those affected.
recovery and rehabilitation
Recovery and Rehabilitation
  • Process undertaken by a disaster-affected community to fully restore itself to its predisaster level of functioning …AND

which enables it to become even

more disaster-resistant.

  • Eg planting/harvest of drought

resistant crops … storm/cyclone

-proofing essential community

buildings, roads, railways, schools and clinics.

non structural mitigation
Non-structural mitigation
  • Attempt to distribute the population and the constructed environment to reduce their exposure to loss (ie zoning ordinances, land-use planning).
  • Non-structural mitigation keeps people away from hazards
introducing the newer tools from disaster risk reduction
Introducing the Newer Tools from Disaster Risk Reduction

This means...

Applying policies, strategies and practices that minimise vulnerabilities in a community or society to:

- avoid (prevent) or

- limit (mitigate and

prepare for)

the adverse impact of

hazards in the context

of sustainable

development …

disaster risk reduction as a critical developmental theme
Disaster risk reduction as a critical developmental theme
  • Informed by a strong theoretical orientation that is risk-focused
  • Is directive and applied – directs action to reduce risks that is socially responsive and value-adding
  • Is supported by a significant international advocacy platform

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and …

hyogo framework for action 2005 2015 hfa
Outcome of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction January 2005

‘Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters’

…ie to achieve

The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries.

Hyogo Framework for Action 2005- 2015(HFA)
slide34

Expected Outcome:

Substantially reduced disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries, by …(3 strategic goals)

…integrating disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies and planning

slide35

…developing and strengthening institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build resilience to hazards

… systematically incorporating risk reduction into emergency prep, response & recovery progs

Zambia

Areas under flood threat SADC:

Source: SADC Food Security Warning System

Mozambique

slide36

Five priorities for action

  • Ensure that drr is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation
  • Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning
  • Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels
  • Reduce underlying risk factors
  • Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response
ensure that drr is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation
Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation
  • Foster political commitment and community participation
  • Develop and strengthen institutional/legislative and operational mechanisms
  • Integrate DRR into development planning
  • Allocate necessary resources
identify assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning
Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning

Risk assessment and maps

  • Hazard, vuln analysis and risk monitoring

Loss estimation

Early Warning Systems

  • Monitoring and forecasting
  • Risk scenarios
  • Warning and dissemination
use knowledge innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience all levels
Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience - all levels

Focus on:

  • Information management
  • Communication,
  • Education and training (ie in schools),
  • Risk awareness and media
  • Research
reduce underlying risk factors 7 areas
Reduce underlying risk factors (7 areas)
  • Incorporate DRR into environmental and natural resource management
  • Especially in coastal zones, wetlands and watershed management
  • Integrated water resource management
increase social and economic resistance and resilience of the poor and most vulnerable
Increase social and economic resistance and resilience of the poor and most vulnerable
  • Social protection and safety nets
  • Financial instruments
  • Sustainable livelihoods strategies
  • Poverty reduction strategy papers
incorporate drr in urban and land use planning
Incorporate DRR in urban and land-use planning

Same house looking down

looking up

strengthen private sector involvement in drr
Strengthenprivate sector involvementin DRR
  • Microfinance, micro-credit
  • Public-private partnerships
  • Risk transfer - micro insurance

Incorporate DRR into recovery planning

  • Infrastructure and critical facilities
  • Employment and livelihoods
  • Housing
  • ? resettlement
strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response
Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response

Strengthen planning for emergency response

national platform for disaster risk reduction
National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction

‘is a nationally owned and led forum or committee of multiple stake-holders. It serves as an advocate of DRR at different levels…

Is the coordination mechanism for mainstreaming DRR into development policies and programmes and plans’

Is also the national institutional conduit for ‘Track II’ funding from the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

global facility for disaster reduction and recovery gfdrr
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)

Track I funding to ISDR for global and regional partnerships

Track II technical assistance to mainstream DRR in Poverty Reduction Strategies

Track III standby recovery financing facility in

times of disaster

slide49

Shifting institutional responses across humanitarian assistance, development engagement and private sector

  • Risk reduction commitments by UN agencies.
  • Explicit risk reduction policy commitments by bilateral agencies (ie DFID - 10% humanitarian budgets obligated to risk reduction).

Commitments by ngos …

to summarise
To summarise
  • The disaster risk reduction toolkit uses concepts from the social and physical sciences - as well as
    • older tools from disaster management
    • newer tools from disaster risk reduction.
  • The Hyogo Framework for Action(HFA) reflects a global commitment to reduce disaster risks developmentally
  • e.g South Africa’s Disaster Management Act and National Disaster Management Framework are consistent with the Hyogo and DRR Frameworks