A Technical Review of Proper Masonry Detailing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Technical Review of Proper Masonry Detailing

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  1. A Technical Review of Proper Masonry Detailing Matthew A. Dettman, P.E.

  2. Overview • Water Penetration Resistance • Wall Systems • Flashing and Weep holes • Coatings • Differential Movement • Cracking • Movement Joints

  3. Problems related to water penetration • Water entry into interior • Efflorescence • Spalling • Corrosion • Reduced insulating capacity • Staining / Mold / Mildew

  4. Keys to Providing Water Penetration Resistance • Quality Materials • Good Construction • Proper detailing • Maintenance

  5. Keys to Providing Water Penetration Resistance • Quality Materials • Good Construction • Proper detailing • Maintenance

  6. Three Basic Wall Types • Drainage Wall • Barrier Wall • Single Wythe Wall

  7. Drainage Wall

  8. Drainage Wall • Water travels down back side of outer wythe, collected on flashing, and channeled to exterior through weep holes • Examples: • Cavity walls • Masonry veneer walls • Rain screen walls

  9. Drainage Walls Requirements • 2 to 4 ½ inch clear cavity • Flashing and weep holes to channel out excessive water

  10. Rain Screen Wall • Equalizes pressure within cavity • Vents at top and bottom of wall or panel • Flashing and weep holes • Compartmentalized • Allows for ventilation and evaporation

  11. Barrier Wall • Collar joint between wythes acts a barrier to moisture along with the thickness of the wall • Examples • Brick and Block Composite Wall

  12. Barrier Wall • Voids allow water penetration • Must be filled solid with mortar or grout

  13. Single Wythe Walls

  14. Single Wythe • Masonry units with coating or integral water repellent • Mortar with integral water repellent • Through-wall flashing • Weep Holes • Vents

  15. Flashing Details • Locations • Placement

  16. Flashing Locations • base of wall • sills • heads of windows • at shelf angles • copings • lower wall/ higher roof intersection • other discontinuities in air space

  17. Good Flashing Detail

  18. Poor Detail

  19. Drip Edge

  20. SS Drip Edge

  21. Shelf Angles

  22. Flashing Single Wythe Walls

  23. Flashing with Shear Transfer

  24. Flashing Reinforced Wall

  25. End Dams

  26. Flashing Laps

  27. Drainage Materials

  28. Weep Holes

  29. Weep Tubes

  30. Vent Weep Holes

  31. Rope Wicks

  32. Flashing Materials • Sheet Metal • Composites • Plastic and Rubber Compounds

  33. Sheet Metals Advantages Disadvantages Material Hard to solder and form Damaged by excessive flexing and can stain Difficult to solder, corrodes early in acidic and salty air Durable, non staining Durable Easy to paint and durable Stainless Steel Cold-Rolled Copper Galvanized Steel

  34. Composites Advantages Disadvantages Material Difficult to solder, damaged by excessive flexing, metal drip edge suggested Degrades in UV light, more easily torn than metal Flexible, durable, non-staining Easy to form Lead-coated copper Copper laminates

  35. Plastics and Rubber Compounds Advantages Disadvantages Material Flexible, easy to form, non-staining Fully adhered, separate lap adhesive not needed, self healing, flexible, easy to form and join Easy to form and join, non-staining, low cost Aesthetics if not used with a metal drip edge, full support recommended Full support required, degrades in UV light, metal drip edge required Easily damaged, full support required, metal drip edge required, questionable durability EPDM Rubberized asphalt PVC

  36. Bldg felt and poly sheeting

  37. Colorless Coatings • Used for a variety of reasons • Recommended for Concrete Masonry • Questionable for Clay Masonry

  38. Possible Dangers • Water can still penetrate • Could cause spalling • If efflorescence occurs under coating, it may be impossible to remove • Recoating will be necessary

  39. Coating Types • Colorless Coatings • Paints

  40. Colorless Coatings • Penetrating • Silanes • Siloxanes • Film-forming • Acrylics • Stearates

  41. Coating Types • Paints • Cement based • Latex • Alkyd • Oil-based Paints

  42. Differential Movement • Movements • Temperature Movement • Moisture Movement • Elastic Deformation • Movement Joints • Design • Placement

  43. Causes of Cracking • Differential Movement • Restraint • Settlement • Elastic Deformations • Creep

  44. Types of Movement

  45. Temperature Movement • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion • Brick = 3.6 x 10-6 • Concrete Masonry = 4.3 x 10-6 • Aluminum = 12.8 x 10-6 • Steel = 6.5 x 10-6