Knowledge was in people’s minds • History • Law • Facts
Knowledge was oral • Courts held hearings • Literally – judges listened to testimony
Old people were vitally important • They could testify from their own memory, the only reliable records there were • They relied on reminders since there was no real calendar and they lived by seasons, not dates
Memories were prodigious • When you can’t read or write, you have to remember • Poetry is easier to remember than prose due to rhyme and rhythm
The sermons composed by St. Bonaventure of Fidenza? • The sermons composed by some other person named Bonaventure? • Sermons copied by a Bonaventure? • Sermons copied by somebody from a church of St. Bonaventure? • Sermons preached by a Bonaventure? • Sermons that belonged to a Bonaventure? • Sermons that belonged to a church of St. Bonaventure? • Sermons by various people of whom the first or most important was somebody named Bonaventure?
Naturally, the Catholic Church fought back Started the first propaganda war
For the Catholic Church printing was considered the enemy • Excommunication for writing or reading banned books • Papal Forbidden Books list
Print’s greatest effect on Society Knowledge