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High-Rise Fires

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  1. High-Rise Fires Henderson Fire Department Tactical Standard for Officer Development School Version - 4 2009

  2. Objectives • Identify type of construction • Identify pertinent fire & building codes • Explain fire behavior in these structures • Describe construction benefits • Identify tactical needs • Recognize firefighting problems in high rise buildings • Explain basic offensive & defensive tactics at high rise structures

  3. Objectives for Sets & Reps • Complete dispatch and en-route responsibilities • Complete Brief Initial Report & Follow-up Report • Identify command mode & strategy • Conduct initial size-up • Identify roles within the Valley-Wide response plan • Discuss manpower needs in each of the 6 main components of the high rise plan • Evaluate needs and request adequate resources • Make appropriate assignments with tactical objectives • Identify benchmarks and communicate when appropriate • Conduct on-going size-up and adjust IAP accordingly • Successfully work through recycle process on a Division • Explain and justify command mode, strategy, IAP, tactics and assignments • Identify critical factors & apply RMP • Identify the main components of the Communications Plan

  4. Overview • Pre-Plans • Huge Buildings • Divided and Undivided Areas • Limited Access • Large Life-Hazard • Manpower Intensive • Elevated Fires • Know your limitations

  5. Pre-Plans • Know (Familiarize) • The Systems • The Access Routes • The Basic Layout • Construction Features • Potential Problems

  6. Huge Buildings 25,000 – 50,000 sq. ft..……. 150’ above ground Big-Box….. within and under a High-Rise

  7. Divided Areas Individual Rooms off of a…. ……..Central Hallway

  8. Limited Access

  9. Large Life-Hazard Multiple people in each room…. X Multiple rooms on each floor…. X Multiple floors…… = A LOT of people to protect!!

  10. Division 23 3 Companies per line x ?? lines Division 24 1 – 3 Companies Evacuation 2 – 6 Companies Lobby 2 – 4 Companies Staging 1 – 2 Companies Fire Control Room 1 Company Medical / Rehab 1 – 2 Companies EMS Branch 1 - ?? Companies Command 5 – 10 Officers Manpower Intensive

  11. Elevated Fires A fire on the 15th floor… Could have hundreds of occupants above……..in danger Getting crews to, and water on the fire quickly is imperative!

  12. Know Your Limitations • Know the Building • Know the Systems • Know the Fire • Know your Crew • Know Yourself • Know your Responsibilities

  13. Construction Features • Type I, or Protected Type II • Design • Exterior Coverings • Parapets • Roofs • Facades • Partition Walls • Stairs and Elevators

  14. Type – I (Fire Resistive) Type – II (Non Combustible)

  15. Center Core Stairs and Elevators Open floor plan Center Hallway Stairs Individual spaces Elevators

  16. No gaps….

  17. Parapets

  18. Ducts and Vents Air Handlers and Piping

  19. Facades

  20. Partition Walls Non-Combustible framing with fire rated coverings

  21. Codes (Life Safety Package) • Occupancy Types • Structural Requirements • Egress • Emergency Signage • Suppression Systems • Standpipes • PRV & PRS

  22. Codes (Life Safety Package) • Fire Pumps • Fire Protection (Construction) • Smoke and Fire Detection and Alarm Systems • Emergency Communication System

  23. Codes (Life Safety Package) • Smoke Management Systems • Passive – Rooms and areas are designed and built to contain smoke and not allow it into common (public) areas • Exhaust – Large fans activate in an effort to keep the smoke 6’ above the floor for 20 minutes • Pressurization – Most common method……most misunderstood! Dampers are used to reduce pressure (.05” water) on fire floor • Air Flow – Fans and dampers are used to remove and replace (exchange) the entire atmosphere several times per minute.

  24. Codes (Life Safety Package) • Central Control Station (Fire Control Room) • Emergency and Standby Power • Elevators • Radio Communications • Phone Communications

  25. Fire Spread, Smoke Spread, & Construction Problems • Fire Spread • Smoke Spread • Stack Effect • Large Open Floors v. Compartmentalized • Drop Ceilings • Use of Steel

  26. Construction Benefits • Type I and Type II • Up to 4-hour resistance rating • Strong and Tight methods • Limited fire spread (hotel type) • Multiple “Safe Refuge” areas • Suppression and Ventilation systems • Communication systems

  27. Firefighting Problems with High-Rise Structures • Access • Life Hazard • Ventilation • Windows

  28. SNFO High-Rise Strategic Decisions Offensive– Major Goal –to remove the FIRE from the occupants -Crews operating in interior positions - All initial assignments designed to back-up, support, or protect the attack crews Tactical Objectives - Firefighter Safety - Occupant Safety - Fire Control / Suppression - Property Conservation - Customer Stabilization

  29. SNFO High-Rise ICS Major Goal: To have personnel operating at all three levels as quickly as possible. Command level officers, managing the Incident Strategic Tactical Task Supervisors in the work areas Most Important! Members in the “hot Zone” doing the actual work

  30. Strategic Fire Medical / Rehab (Rescue #2 & 3) Tactical Task

  31. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical First-Alarm assignment 5 Engines, 2 Trucks, 1 Heavy/Engine, 3 Rescues, 2 Battalion Chiefs Company #1 - Report to the “Appropriate Entrance” - Conduct size-up, give Brief Initial Report - Assume Command (Leave secondary passport on seat) - Meet with security or building representative (if app) - Start ascent only when accompanied by 2nd Engine - When the first Battalion Chief assumes Command, become Investigations, and continue up to the fire floor. - Check status of lower floors, including evacuation in progress, floor layout, location of fire doors, standpipe outlets, and suitability for Staging. - Change Fire Attack to the appropriate Division (according to floor number) upon arrival at the fire floor. - Engineer may supply FDC *Any evidence of fire should trigger a 2nd alarm and Base Channel

  32. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical First-Alarm assignment Company #2 - Assemble equipment and ascend (entire crew) to fire floor with E #1, assist with fire attack (Leave extra equipment on staging floor) Company #3 – Assemble equipment and ascend (entire crew) to fire floor to assist with Fire Attack. Company #4 - Assembles equipment and ascend (entire crew) to fire floor to assist with fire attack • * Note – Two Engineers from these first four Companies shall be utilized to supply the FDC • * Note – One of the Officers from these first four Companies shall assume the role of Division Supervisor. The Supervisor shall manage the *recycle, and all other activities within that Division Company # 5 - Establishes Lobby Control

  33. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical First-Alarm assignment Company # 6 – Assembles equipment and ascends to the floor above the fire for Recon/Evac (Becomes Division ??) Company # 7 – Establishes Staging two (2) floors below the fire floor. Company # 8 – Reports to staging floor to check in. Then take up an appropriate RIT position *Should be filled by Heavy if available Rescue #1 – Responds to the Fire Control Room and establishes the Systems Control Unit. Assess panels, report on the status of, and control the building systems. Rescue #2 & 3 – Reports to the staging floor to establish Fire Medical/ Rehab

  34. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical First-Alarm assignment Battalion #1 - Assumes Command and establishes Command Post Battalion #2 - Assumes Deputy IC role 10 Resources on the 1st alarm = real potential for overloading the Incident Commander. Incident Command response = “Command Team”

  35. Fire Medical / Rehab (Rescue #2 & 3)

  36. SNFO High-Rise ICS Additional Considerations • Additional Resources • Apparatus Positioning • Recon • Aggressive Early • Ventilation • Back-Up • Recycle / On-Deck

  37. SNFO High-Rise ICS Evacuation Procedures • Identify and Announce Stairwell • Determine marshalling point • Below the Fire v. Out of Building • Fire Area • > 2 floors above • > 2 floors below • Stariways, Hallways and Elevator Lobbies on upper floors (top-down) • Shelter-in-Place v. Remove • Utilize PA System • Provide thorough directions

  38. 95 2L 0D 7th floor vestibule SNFO High-Rise ICS Primary Search Markings

  39. Main Lobby 97 1L 1D 95 2L 0D 7th floor vestibule SNFO High-Rise ICS Secondary Search Markings

  40. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical 2nd Alarm Upgrades 5 Engines, 2 Trucks, 1 Heavy, 3 Rescues, 2 BC,Mobile Air Unit - Engineer from 1st arriving company to establish Base Incident Commanders shall deploy resources from the 2nd and greater alarms to match the tactical needs of the incident. The following is a sample deployment of a 2nd alarm: 4 Companies to Staging 2 Companies to establish Evacuations Group under Fire Branch. 1 company to supplement RIT 1 company to supplement Lobby - Rescues can be used to fill in, but should be considered to staff EMS Branch, or supplement the Fire Medical / Rehab unit in the Staging area

  41. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical 2nd Alarm Upgrades Battalion # 1 – to establish and assume leadership of Fire Branch Battalion # 2 – to assume the role of Deputy for the Fire Branch Director Battalion # 3 & 4 – to assume Incident Command and Logistics Section Arriving Chief Officer/Aide to fill the role of Deputy IC **Additional Chief Officers and Support Staff to report to Incident Command Post for assignment.

  42. Strategic Level Logistics Section (BC #4)

  43. SNFO High-Rise ICS Typical 3rd Alarm Upgrades 3 Engines, 1 Truck, 1 Rescue Incident Commanders shall deploy resources from the 3rd and greater alarms to match the tactical needs of the incident. Priority should be given to supporting units on and above the fire floors, and units actively working on evacuation. Battalion # 3 to establish and assume leadership of the Operations (Ops) Section Battalion # 4 to assume the role of Deputy Operations Chief Deputy Chief #1 – Assume Command Arriving Chief Officer / Aide to establish and assume leadership of the Logistics Section ****4th and subsequent alarms shall mirror 3rd alarm resources, and shall be assigned at the discretion of the Incident Commander.

  44. Strategic Level

  45. SNFO High-Rise ICS Communications Plan • IDLH radio traffic can be extreme • Multiple Channels • Operations (Ops) • Logistics (Log) • EMS • Dispatch • Personnel flow through Incident • Equipment flow through Incident

  46. SNFO High-Rise ICS Communications Plan by Assignment First Alarm • Company # 1(Command > Investigations Group > Division ??) • Company # 2-4 (Going aloft with Investigations Group) • Company # 5 (Lobby) • Company # 6 (Division ??) 1 floor above the Fire • Company # 7 (Staging) 2 floors below the Fire • Company # 8 (RIT) Good Tactical Location • Rescue # 1 (Systems Control Unit) in the Fire Control Room • Rescue # 2 & 3 (Fire Medical) in the Staging Area

  47. SNFO High-Rise ICS Communications Plan by Assignment Second Alarm • Base (First Company from 2nd Alarm) • Evacuations Group • EMS Branch

  48. High-Rise Communications Plan

  49. SNFO High-Rise Strategic Decisions Defensive– Major Goal –to remove the OCCUPANTS from the fire -Crews operating in interior positions - All initial assignments designed to back-up, support, or protect the attack crews Tactical Objectives - Firefighter Safety - Occupant Safety - Fire Control / Suppression - Property Conservation - Customer Stabilization