Download
week 6 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Week 6 PowerPoint Presentation

Week 6

500 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Week 6

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Week 6 • Body structure test • After test complete page 56 in syllabus • Review homework-oral practice • Chapter 6-pages 106-131-lecture • Getting ready for Integumentary test- use pages 56 and 67 in the syllabus • Homework

  2. Review Integumentary System • What are the three layers of skin? What structures are found in each? • Name the three types of burns and tell the layers that each affects • Name the two types of glands found in skin-(use medical terms)

  3. Define the following: • dermatosis dermatitis • autograft SLE • alopecia epidermis • ecchymosis cellulitis • hirsutism abrasion • erythema nevus • epidermis liposuction • diaphoresis biopsy • gangrene onychomalacia • melanoma cyanosis • decubitus ulcer abrasion • laceration incision

  4. Gastrointestinal System

  5. Anatomy and physiology of the Digestive System • Functions of the digestive system • Digestion- the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food • Absorption- the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion • Elimination- the process of removing waste from the body

  6. Upper GI System

  7. Structures of the Upper GI tract and their function • Mouth - oro, stomato • an opening that holds the food • Teeth - donto, dento • mastication by chewing, grinding, tearing • Gum - gingivo structure to hold the teeth, needs to remain healthy • Tongue - glosso, linguo manipulation of the food

  8. Salivary Glands • Salivary - sialo • Sublingual • Submandibular • Parotid

  9. Other terms associated with the upper GI system • Bolus - a piece of chewed food • Pharynx - throat • Epiglottis - a piece of tissue that covers the trachea when swallowing • Esophagus - the food tube, lined with rings of muscle, peristalsis occurs

  10. Stomach- gastro • Has three layers of smooth muscles • Circular, long, and oblique • Lined with mucous membranes • Lies in the upper-left side of the abdominal cavity

  11. Function of the stomach*mechanical and chemical* • All food stuff mixed with gastric juices • Churned until semi liquid formed- chyme • Process takes 3-5 hours • Peristalsis of smooth muscles moves the chyme to the pyloric valve • Pyloric valve relaxes and lets chyme proceed in small amounts to the duodenum • Stomach empties and lies in folds called rugae

  12. Duodenumfirst part of the small intestine • Small intestine- entero • Digestion occurs in proximal duodenum • C-shaped and is 10-12 inches in length

  13. Function of the Duodenum • Chyme enters duodenum • Digestive juices are added by the pancreas and gallbladder to further break down the chyme

  14. Structures of the Lower GI System • Small intestines – entero - is divided up into three segments • Duodenum – duodeno - (part of the upper GI system) • Jejunum – jejuno - more absorption • Ileum - ileo - final absorption

  15. Small Intestines primary function • Secretes enzymes for all foodstuffs • Breaks down fats, CHO, and proteins to be absorbed by the blood and lymph capillaries • Absorption of nutrients

  16. Villi • Throughout the whole length of the small intestine are tiny finger-like projections called ‘villi’. Through the villi 85% of all nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream for delivery to cells

  17. Completion of digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine • Completed in 4-6 hours • Once completed the waste will move into the cecum • The orange arrow • Indicates the ileocecal • Valve. The cecum is the • first part of the large I • Intestine. • The green arrow is • the appendix

  18. Large Intestine- colo, colono • Water and waste products stored here • Wide and about 5’ in length • Has no villi, does not coil or lie in folds, and is divided into different areas by name- ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid • Water reabsorbed back into the body

  19. Rectum and Anus (procto) • Rectum – recto - 5 inches and terminates at the anal canal • Anus – ano - has internal and external sphincter muscles

  20. Accessory Organs and their functions

  21. Liver - Hepato • Liver • Largest glandular organ in the body • Manufactures bile (chole)

  22. Gallbladder (cholecysto) • Muscular sac • Function is to store and release bile

  23. Pancreas- pancreato • Long fish tail shaped • adds digestive juices to breakdown CHO, fats, proteins

  24. Peritoneum • Lining of the walls of the abdominal cavity • Large sheet of serous membranes • Contains small amounts of fluid that permits organs to glide freely without friction

  25. Mesentery • Folds of peritoneum that support the intestines • Between the folds are blood, lymph and nerve supply for the intestines

  26. Mesentery

  27. Pathology of the Digestive System • OralCavity • Stomatitis- inflammation of the mouth • Gingivitis- inflammation of the gums • Halitosis- • bad breath

  28. Esophagus/ esophago • Dysphagia- difficulty swallowing • Hernia- the protrusion of one structure into another • Ulcers-an open sore of the mucus membrane

  29. Stomach- gastro • Gastritis- inflammation of the stomach • Dyspepsia- indigestion • Nausea-a feeling of sickness in the stomach causing an urge to vomit • Emesis- vomiting • Eructation- burping • Ulcer- an open sore of the mucus membrane

  30. Intestines • Ileitis- inflammation of the ileum • Enteritis- inflammation of the small intestine • Crohn’s disease- inflammation in the small intestine- usually the ileum • Colitis- inflammation of the large intestine • Flatus- a reflex that expels intestinal gas through the anus

  31. Duodenal ulcer- a sore in the mucus lining of the duodenum • Borborygmus- bowel sounds • Ascites- abnormal build-up of fluid in the abdomen • Appendicitis- inflammation of the appendix • Diverticulitis- inflammation of a sac or pouch in the intestinal tract • Celiac sprue- a genetic disorder caused by an allergy to gluten, sets off an autoimmune response that causes damage to the small intestine which causes malabsorption • Hemorrhoids-veins around the anus or lower rectum are swollen and inflamed

  32. Liver- hepato • Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver • Jaundice- yellowing condition • Cirrhosis- condition characterized by irreversible scarring of the liver

  33. Gallbladder- cholecysto • Cholecystitis- inflammation of the gallbladder • Cholelithiasis- gallstones

  34. Pancreas- pancreato • Pancreatitis- inflammation of the pancreas

  35. Psychological • Anorexia nervosa - without appetite • Bulimia - binging and purging

  36. Procedures of the Digestive System • Gastrectomy- removal of the stomach • Colectomy- removal of the colon • Cholecystectomy- removal of the gallbladder • Stomaplasty- surgical repair of the mouth • Biliary lithotripsy- crushing of gallstones • Appendectomy- removal of the appendix

  37. Vagotomy- incision of the vagus nerve • Colostomy- forming an opening in the colon • Colotomy- incision of the colon • Anastomosis- a surgical connection between two tubes • Ileostomy- forming an opening in the ileum

  38. Colostomy

  39. Diagnostic Procedures • Sigmoidoscopy- visual examination of the sigmoid colon • Hemoccult- hidden blood • Stool culture- lab testing feces for microorganisms • Upper GI series- testing the structures of the upper digestive tract • Colonscopy- visual examination of the large intestine • Liver biopsy- excision of liver tissue for pathological study • Endoscopy- visual examination within • Lower GI series- testing the structures of the lower digestive tract

  40. Abbreviations • TPN- total parenteral nutrition • po- by mouth • BM- bowel movement • ac- before meals • NG- nasogastric • HAV- hepatitis A virus • BS- bowel sounds

  41. GI- gastrointestinal • NPO- nothing by mouth • pc- after meals • FBS- fasting blood sugar • BaE- barium enema • HBV- hepatitis B virus

  42. Medications • Antiflatulents- against gas • Laxatives- purgatives • Antispasmodics- against spasm • Emetics- to induce vomiting • Anti-emetics- against vomiting • Antacids- against acid

  43. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM ELEMENTS (use with your textbook for CD-Rom) Element Meaning chol/e bile, gall cholecyst/o gallbladder choledoch/o bile duct col/o colon colon/o colon dent/o teeth duoden/o duodenum enter/o intestines esophag/o esophagus gastr/o stomach gingiv/o gum gloss/o tongue hepat/o liver ile/o ileum jejun/o jejunum lingu/o tongue megal/o enlargement

  44. ELEMENT MEANING • odont/o teeth • or/o mouth • proct/o rectum, anus • recto rectum • sial/o, saliva, salivary glands • sigmoid/o sigmoid colon • stomat/o mouth • -algia pain • -dynia pain • -ectomy excision, removal • -emesis vomiting • -gram record • -iasis abnormal condition(produced by something specified

  45. ELEMENT MEANING • -megaly enlargement • -osis abnormal condition • -phagia eating, swallowing • -plasty surgical repair • -rrhea flow, discharge • -rrhaphy suture • -scope instrument to view • -scopy visual examination • -spasm involuntary contraction, twitching • -stenosis narrowing, stricture • -tome instrument to cut • -tomy incision, cut into • dia- through • dys- bad, painful, difficult • epi- above, upon • hyper- excessive

  46. Homework • Study for Integumentary Test- use pages 56 and 67 in syllabus • Complete pages 138-145 (book) Interactive CD • Complete pages 63-67 (syllabus) • Read pages 148-171 (book)

  47. Review for Integumentary QuizPage 67 • Define the following- • SLE Alopecia • Nevus Cellulitis • Hirsutism Autograft • Dermatitis Dermatosis • Abrasion Liposuction • Diaphoresis Gangrene • Biopsy Onychomalacia • Erythema Epidermis • Ecchymosis Xeroderma • Urticaria Hidrosis

  48. Name the two glands located in skin • Describe burns and tell what areas of the skin they affect • Name the three layers of skin • ANY QUESTIONS??