Week 6. Sustainability in Development. Sustainability and Sustainable Development. Concept of “sustainability” recently associated with tourism development initiatives and efforts. (French, 1992; Long & Nuckolls, 1992)
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Sustainability in Development
Involves management of all resources in such a way that “economic, social, and aesthetic needs [are fulfilled] while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems.” (Inskeep, 1991)
Sustainable tourism policy
Langkawi Geopark Conservation
Community based sustainable tourism programme
An alternative model of tourism development
The concerns of land tenure, equitable access to resources, cultural integrity, gender sensitivity, and community-based resource management.
Langkawi has a high potential for conservation of
Langkawi Research Centre:
Geology & Lanscape
Biology & Marine
Culture & Local Tradition
A= Tongkat Ali B= Pepanggil Langkawi’
C= Penerahan pianggu D= crab-eating macaques
E= Spectackled leaf monkey
F= Calotes versicolor Source : Assoc Prof. Norhayati Ahmad, UKM
timber (non-productive forest, forest that can be exploited for timber, recreation (production forest).
the geological components within the park area
the balanced protection of geological and biological heritage.
promote the area for education and recreation purposes.
Damage to coral reefs as result of boating, reef walking & collection of shells & ornamental fish for the tourist market;
With the exception of protected areas, most coral reef areas along the coast are under pressure fromover-exploitation
Pollution from coastal urban centres, including Mombassa, due to poor waste management and inadequate or non-existent waste disposal facilities & infrastructure
Unplanned development of coastal hotels with major impacts on shorelines & coastalhabitats
Generally good environmental management policies in place & tourism development strategy document, emphasis on sustainable tourism, but…
Sale of coral & shells to tourists
Increased organic pollution in the vicinity of coastal hotels
Beach erosion caused by hard structures of hotels
Danger of carrying capacity being exceeded in some areas (La Digue, Beau Vallon, etc.)
Tourism one of the main root causes of modification & loss of habitats
Environmental Impact Assessment
(Will be discussed in the next lecture)
Sustainable Tourism ??
Coursework:A Project/essay Oriented Assignment
TWO Steps of work:
Among other things that you could consider: